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Rosetta Probe Reveals Surprising Discovery About The Water On Comet 67p

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*Originally seen on Phys.org.*

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Recently, the Rosetta space probe analyzed water from a Kuiper Belt comet theorized to have originally brought water to Earth billions of years ago. It was found to contain more of a hydrogen isotope called deuterium than water found on Earth, fueling the debate on the origin of our planet’s oceans.

About 97% of Earth’s surface water is found in our oceans, meaning that all of the water from lakes, rivers, mountains, glaciers, ice caps and groundwater only make up 3% of Earth’s surface water. But the Earth was once thought to be a dry planet some 4.5 billion years ago, as the oceans are thought to be only 3.8 billion years old.

The two current prevailing theories about the ocean’s formation state that 1) the Earth was formed with water and that this water came from the inside out, as well as 2) the Earth’s water was also brought here by other sources.

The current theory proposes that during the differentiation of Earth’s layers, (i.e., core, mantle, etc.), there were massive amounts of gases being released from volcanic activity, and while this was taking place the Earth was also thought to be bombarded by objects such as comets. These two processes are thought to have provided the Earth with its water.

But the comet aspect of this theory was recently displaced, according to water samples analyzed from the Rosetta comet 67P/C-G.

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Different Type Of Water Found On Comets Compared To Earth Water

Comet_67P_on_19_September_2014_NavCam_mosaic

The measurements were made in the month following the spacecraft’s arrival at Comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko on 6 August. It is one of the most anticipated early results of the mission, because the origin of Earth’s water is still an open question, Phys reports.

One of the leading hypotheses on Earth’s formation is that it was so hot when it formed 4.6 billion years ago that any original water content should have boiled off. But, today, two thirds of the surface is covered in water, so where did it come from?

The key to determining where the water originated is in its ‘flavour,’ in this case the proportion of deuterium –a form of hydrogen with an additional neutron –to normal hydrogen. This proportion is an important indicator of the formation and early evolution of the Solar System, with theoretical simulations showing that it should change with distance from the Sun and with time in the first few million years.

But thanks to the dynamics of the early Solar System, this is not a straightforward process. Long-period comets that hail from the distant Oort cloud originally formed in Uranus–Neptune region, far enough from the Sun that water ice could survive.

They were later scattered to the Solar System’s far outer reaches as a result of gravitational interactions with the gas giant planets as they settled in their orbits.

Conversely, Jupiter-family comets like Rosetta’s were thought to have formed further out, in the Kuiper Belt beyond Neptune. Occasionally these bodies are disrupted from this location and sent towards the inner Solar System, where their orbits become controlled by the gravitational influence of Jupiter.

Indeed, Rosetta’s comet now travels around the Sun between the orbits of Earth and Mars at its closest and just beyond Jupiter at its furthest, with a period of about 6.5 years.

Previous measurements of the deuterium/hydrogen (D/H) ratio in other comets have shown a wide range of values. Of the 11 comets for which measurements have been made, it is only the Jupiter-family Comet 103P/Hartley 2 that was found to match the composition of Earth’s water, in observations made by ESA’s Herschel mission in 2011.

By contrast, meteorites originally hailing from asteroids in the Asteroid Belt also match the composition of Earth’s water. Thus, despite the fact that asteroids have a much lower overall water content, impacts by a large number of them could still have resulted in Earth’s oceans.

It is against this backdrop that Rosetta’s investigations are important. Interestingly, the D/H ratio measured by the Rosetta Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis, or ROSINA, is more than three times greater than for Earth’s oceans and for its Jupiter-family companion, Comet Hartley 2. Indeed, it is even higher than measured for any Oort cloud comet as well.

“This surprising finding could indicate a diverse origin for the Jupiter-family comets – perhaps they formed over a wider range of distances in the young Solar System than we previously thought,” says Kathrin Altwegg, principal investigator for ROSINA and lead author of the paper reporting the results in the journal Science this week.

“Our finding also rules out the idea that Jupiter-family comets contain solely Earth ocean-like water, and adds weight to models that place more emphasis on asteroids as the main delivery mechanism for Earth’s oceans.”

“We knew that Rosetta’s in situ analysis of this comet was always going to throw up surprises for the bigger picture of Solar System science, and this outstanding observation certainly adds fuel to the debate about the origin of Earth’s ,” says Matt Taylor, ESA’s Rosetta project scientist.

“As Rosetta continues to follow the comet on its orbit around the Sun throughout next year, we’ll be keeping a close watch on how it evolves and behaves, which will give us unique insight into the mysterious world of comets and their contribution to our understanding of the evolution of the Solar System.”

What are your thoughts on this discovery? Do you think extraplanetary sources helped to provide our planet’s oceans? Share with us below!

Source:

Phys.org

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Science Says Silence Is Vital For Our Brains

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In Brief

  • The Facts:

    Studies have shown that excessive environmental noise not only decreases one's quality of life and cognitive function, but also reduces lifespan. The good news is that spending time in silence can reverse these effects.

  • Reflect On:

    Are you living in an environment that is consistently loud? Do you take much time for intended silence? Have you tried the 5 Days of You Challenge?

If you’re the average person, you wake up to the sound of an alarm. That alarm sends you to the bathroom where you quickly get yourself ready for your workday. If you have the time, you might eat something before jumping into your car to listen to music or the radio while you sit in traffic on your way to work.

Once you get there, it’s all people, customers, co-workers, cars, trucks, planes, lawn mowers, construction, phone calls, and tasks for the next 8 hours. These noises that most of us experience in excess send our bodies into stress states, decreasing our quality of life and potentially reducing our lifespan. It appears that noise, in excess, is not healthy for humans. Silence, on the other hand, can have huge benefits, but let’s explore the damage caused by noise before we get to the benefits of silence.

Before we get into the research, I’d like to note that the word ‘noise’ is said to come from the Latin word nausea, or the Latin word noxia, meaning seasickness, sickness, hurt, damage, or injury. Is it any wonder ‘noise’ is not healthy for us?

The Studies

Outside of your anecdotal reflection, there is scientific evidence that supports the negative effects of noise on our health. The World Health Organisation (WHO) examined and quantified its health burden based on a European study that involved 340 million people living in Western Europe. It found that residents were cumulatively losing about a million years off their lives due to noise every year. That’s like one in every three people losing an entire year off their life due to excessive noise!

A study that was published in 2011 in Psychological Science examined the effects Munich’s airport had on children’s health and cognition. Professor Gary W. Evans of Cornell University noted that the children who were exposed to noise developed a stress response that caused them to ignore the noise. These children not only ignored harmful noises, but also regular stimuli that are important to pay attention to like speech. Wonder why people have trouble paying attention these days? Perhaps we are exposed to too much noise and too many sounds.

This study is among the strongest, probably the most definitive proof that noise–even at levels that do not produce any hearing damage–causes stress and is harmful to humans. – Professor Gary Evans

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Going back to anecdotal evidence for a moment, I always find that staying with my friends who live in cities produces a much more uncomfortable situation for myself than when I’m in more quiet situations, or living at my quiet, somewhat isolated home in nature. I always share with friends that the environment of living in a city seems to be unhealthy; not just the air, but the energy, hustle and bustle, and the noise as well. Reading these studies clearly illustrates that it does not appear to be natural or healthy for humans to live or work in loud environments every day.

Noise has been linked to high blood pressure, heart disease, tinnitus, and loss of sleep. Living in consistently noisy environments will cause you to experience much higher levels of these harmful hormones. Of course, there is something you can do about this should you take action on it, but it requires that–action.

The Benefits of Silence

Again, pointing to anecdotal evidence for a moment, think back to the moments where you were on your own, retreating to the cottage or somewhere else quiet. Did you notice how often you NOTICED the silence? Not only that, but you likely felt a lot better after 3 or 4 hours of being there.

It isn’t just cleaner air or taking some time away from work, it’s the silence and lack of distraction. This can be observed by playing loud music and partying the entire time at a cottage as well. You’ll realize it isn’t relaxing, but simply another distraction. When you contrast the two different experiences, the benefits become more clear.

An interesting study observed the effects of noise, music, and silence on the brain. The study was published in the journal Heart and found that the two minute pauses randomly placed between the ‘relaxing music’  in the study were far more relaxing for the brain than the relaxing music. The longer the silence, the more benefits experienced by the participants. Study author L. Bernardi found that his ‘irrelevant’ blank pauses were the most important aspects of the study. Silence is heightened by contrast.

What You Can Do & The Takeaway

So, what can you do if you experience a lot of noise and are looking to avoid loud noises or simply take a break? Firstly, the good news is that the brain recovers from too much noise over time. According to the attention restoration theory, the brain’s finite cognitive resources can begin restoring when you are in an environment with lower levels of sensory input. In silence, the brain essentially lets down its sensory guard and restores some of what has been ‘lost’ through excess noise.

The practical end of this would look like making an extra effort to be or spend time in silence. This means no music, movies, friends, conversations, phone chimes, etc, even if it’s only for 30 minutes or an hour each day.

This silence would not only allow your brain to restore its cognitive functions like creativity, but it can give you the opportunity to disconnect, quiet down and connect with yourself as well.

Years ago, I created a challenge called the 5 Days of You Challenge that’s designed to do just that – help people slow down, reduce noise and distraction, and connect deeper with themselves. Over the years, I have sent 180,000 people through this challenge and it has resulted in an incredible number of positive transformations.

If you’re looking to:

  • Clear emotional blocks
  • Connect deeply with yourself
  • Find more peace in your life
  • Develop greater self-awareness and presence
  • Slow down and enjoy life more

Then this challenge is something I highly recommend. I’ve made this challenge available to everyone to experience for free. You can check it out on CETV here.

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SpaceX’s Satellites Are Messing Up Astronomers’ Observations & It’s Just The Beginning.

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In Brief

  • The Facts:

    Satellites launched into space for faster internet speeds are interfering with astronomers' view of the sky, and space.

  • Reflect On:

    Do we really need faster connection speeds? Are there are health consequences of beaming the planet with this type of wifi radiation?

Starting at the beginning of this new decade, a campaign to launch thousands of new satellites into the space surrounding our planet will begin, which will offer high-speed internet to every region of the Earth — from space.

These satellites are particularly bright and are seen as white streaks. Their light is so bright that they are competing with our own stars and planets. Some scientists are concerned that these new “mega-constellations” comprised of thousands of satellites could interfere with images taken from telescopes, and potentially interfere with radio astronomy observations.

Scientists are warning of a dystopian night sky.

What’s With All The Satellites, You Ask?

Currently, there are 2,200 active satellites orbiting around Earth. However, the Starlink constellation, a project from SpaceX, has started sending out clusters of about 60 satellites into orbit and will continue to do so every few weeks until about 1500 satellites are launched by the end of this year. By the mid 2020’s, there could be upwards of 12,000 satellites in orbit around the Earth.

A company from the UK, OneWeb, is also planning to launch between 650 and 2,000 satellites, depending on customer demand.

Some astronomers are concerned because the satellites appeared as bright white flashes on their images.

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Dhara Patel, an astronomer at the Royal Observatory Greenwich said: “These satellites are about the size of a table, but they’re very reflective, and their panels reflect lots of the Sun’s light, which means that we can see them in images that we take with telescopes.”

“These satellites are also big radiowave users… and that means they can interfere with the signals that astronomers using. So it also affects radio astronomy as well.”

A Dystopian Night Sky…

The sky as we know it will be changed forever and it’s happening right before our eyes. In some ways, it has already changed because many satellites that are currently in orbit can be seen by the naked eye. Soon, it will be impossible not to see satellites while looking up at the sky. It’s unfortunate that we don’t have a say in enforcing any regulations. Sure, the allure of this is attractive — super high-speed internet, no cables and plugs, etc. But, I’m sure there would be a large number of people who think their internet is fast enough as is, and would be okay with keeping a few cables here and there.

We seem to be obsessed with always attaining the best of the best, but unfortunately that quickly renders the “outdated” technology useless, which in turn creates a lot of unnecessary waste.

Valid Concerns For “A Crawling Sky”

“Every culture throughout time has valued the night sky, and many people have enormously meaningful or practical traditions of naked-eye observation, woven right into their culture,” Kathryn Denning, an anthropologist at York University who studies the ethics of space exploration, wrote in an email. Cultural heritage issues, she said, “is taken seriously at the United Nations level, but to my knowledge that hasn’t translated into international rules for visible satellites yet.” Even some animals use starlight for navigation, and it’s hard to know if constellation satellites will have an impact on them, too.

Caitlin Casey, an Astronomer from the University of Texas, wants the world to know that messing with the night sky removes “the one thing that all humans have had in the past 200,000 years, millions of years, it’s always been there.” She’s certainly got a valid point there!

“My whole attachment to science and pursuing this as a career dates back to seeing the night sky as a child and being mesmerized,” she says. “Astronomy is a unique science: we can’t tinker with things in a lab, experimenting on stars. The entire science is looking up at the sky, and losing that would be tragic.”

Our obsession with ‘the latest and greatest’ has certainly caused us to not always consider what the potential implications of our actions could represent in the future and how they may affect us and our planet.

Not to mention the thousands of satellites beaming radio waves down to our planet, is it just me or is anyone else even a little bit concerned about this? Currently, we are still able to escape Wi-Fi and cell signals, which in my opinion is the greatest way to recharge our mind, body and soul. Unfortunately, it seems that this may not be an option in the future, as we’ll have the ability to “connect” wherever we are in the world, which inevitably will come with pros and cons.

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Declassified CIA Document Shows How Astronauts Conducted Telepathy Experiments In Space

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In Brief

  • The Facts:

    A document found inside the CIA's electronic reading room goes into detail regarding several telepathic experiments performed successfully, decades ago by both US and Soviet astronauts.

  • Reflect On:

    With decades of statistically strong results in the lab and so many real world examples, why is this topic still shunned by mainstream academia? And why is it studied by at the highest levels of government in multiple countries if it's fake?

“The Soviet Union is well aware of the benefits and applications of parapsychology research. In 1963, a Kremilin edict apparently gave top priority to biological research, which in Russia includes parapsychology. The major impetus behind the Soviet drive to harness the possible capabilities of telepathic communication, telekinetics, and bionics is said to come from the Soviet military and the KGB. Today it is reported that the USSR has twenty or more centres for the study of parapsychological phenomena, with an annual budget estimated in 1967 at over 13 million dollars and reported to be as high as 21 million dollars.

Soviet parapsychology research was actually stimulated by the 1960 French story concerning the US atomic submarine Nautilus. The French journalists splashed the now rather infamous Nautilus story in headlines “US Navy Uses ESP on Atomic Sub!” Ship to shore telepathy, according to the French, blipped along nicely even when the Nautilus was far under water. “Is telepathy a new secret weapon? Will ESP be a deciding factor in future warfare?” The speculating French sensationalized, “Has the American military learned the secret of mind power?” In Leningrad the Nautilus reports went off like a depth charge in the mind of L.L Vasilev.”

The above information comes from this declassified CIA document.

It goes on to mention that in  April of 1960, Dr. Leonid Leonidovich Vasiliev addressed a group of high-ranking soviet scientists stating:

We carried out extensive and until now completely unreported investigations under the Stalin regime. Today the American Navy is testing telepathy on their atomic submarines. Soviet scientists conducted a great many successful telepathy tests over a quarter of a century ago. It’s urgent that we throw off our prejudices. We must again plunge into the exploration of this vital field.

As you can see, telepathy and parapsychology, which include remote viewing, ESP and psychokinesis, have all been studied in-depth within black budget special access programs in multiple countries. These programs are often highly classified, and so whatever has been revealed in official documentation is only the tip of the iceberg. Sometimes, the declassification of documents is used to halt more questioning into the phenomenon. The STARGATE program is a great example of that in the United States. Although the documents that were declassified show some startling findings, like the fact that remote viewing is real and that it was used for intelligence collecting purposes, it’s safe to assume that many details of this program remain highly classified.

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Russel Targ was the co-founder of that program. Here’s a video of him sharing everything he knows about ESP.

The crazy thing about parapsychology is the fact that studies have yielded statistically significant results. I’m talking about hundreds if not thousands of studies that have been conducted worldwide have seen positive results.

There seems to be a deep concern that the whole field will be tarnished by studying a phenomenon that is tainted by its association with superstition, spiritualism and magic. Protecting against this possibility sometimes seems more important than encouraging scientific exploration or protecting academic freedom. But this may be changing. Cassandra Vieten, PhD and President/CEO at the Institute of Noetic Sciences (source)

Many of these results are just as strong, if not stronger, than a lot of the results that come from hard sciences like physics and mechanical engineering. The Department of Defence has openly stated that the phenomena within this realm is real, despite the fact that they are still somewhat inexplicable. As far back as 1999, the head of the statistics department at UC Irvine, Jessica Utts, published a paper showing the results dealing with parapsychology and mind-body connection are a lot stronger than the results used to approve some of our medications!

Again, most of what’s known is still protected and locked up by the black budget world.

The documents referenced above are also decades old, so just imagine what’s happened or what’s been discovered since then!

The documents also outline how these experiments were not limited to earth.

Soviet research into biocommunications phenomena does not appear to be earth-bound and limited to inner space, but apparently extends to outer space as well. The so-called Father of Soviet Rocketry, K.E Tsiolkovsky, stated that:

“In the coming era of space flights, telepathic abilities are necessary. While the space rocket must bring men toward knowledge of the grand secrets in the universe, the study of psychic phenomena can lead us toward knowledge of the mysteries of the human mind. It is precisely the solution of this secret which promises the greatest achievements.” (source)

There are reports that the Soviets are training their cosmonauts in telepathy to back-up their electronic equipment while in outer space. One of these back-up schemes is known to involve coded telepathic messages. This method was previously demonstrated in March 1967, when a coded telepathic message was flashed from Moscow to Leningrad. The involvement of astronauts or cosmonauts in telepathy experiments is not necessarily unprecedented. In February 1971, during the Apollo 14 flight to the moon, astronaut Edgar Mitchell made 150 separate attempts to project his thoughts from inside the space capsule back to an individual on earth. The results of the Apollo 14 experiments have been well-documented in detail and are published in the Journal of Parapsychology. source()

Mitchell used 25 numbered cards in the experiment, in which he attempted to send a thought message to four people regarding the symbols on each card. He said two of the four got 51 of the 200 correct, and the other two were less successful. (source)

Dr. Elizabeth Rauscher, a world-renowned physicist, researcher, and presenter who has done a lot of work for NASA, among several other organizations, has admitted that quantum entanglement experiments have also successfully been carried out from Earth to space.

Much Stronger Examples

Some materialistically inclined scientists and philosophers refuse to acknowledge these phenomena because they are not consistent with their exclusive conception of the world. Rejection of post-materialist investigation of nature or refusal to publish strong science findings supporting a post-materialist framework are antithetical to the true spirit of scientific inquiry, which is that empirical data must always be adequately dealt with. Data which do not fit favored theories and beliefs cannot be dismissed a priori. Such dismissal is the realm of ideology, not science. – Dr. Gary Schwartz, Professor of Psychology, Medicine, Neurology, Psychiatry, and Surgery at the University of Arizona (source)

Although the above mentioned phenomena is very intriguing, especially the Soviet part, we have to remember that there is still a lot of information that has not been disclosed yet. This is not really studied openly in mainstream academia yet, it’s only really studied at the highest levels of government.

I published a well-sourced article providing multiple examples from a CIA document that confirm the existence of humans with ‘special abilities’ who are able to do ‘impossible’ things. You can access that here. It’s very interesting and goes to show just how strong results in the field of parapsychology are, and what information may still be kept hidden from us.

Today, hundreds of scientists are coming together to emphasize that physical matter is not our only reality. They’ve created a manifesto, and you can find links and access more information about this initiative, which started a few years ago, in an article we published here.

There is an entire non-physical world out there for us to study.

“The day science begins to study non-physical phenomena, it will make more progress in one decade than in all the previous centuries of its existence.” – Nikola Tesla

The point is that this stuff is very real, and has been studied for a long time.

Here’s an interesting quote from the literature regarding remote viewing, one subject within the realm of parapsychology that allows a person to view other people or objects in different locations, regardless of the distance:

Here’s a telling quote from some of the declassified literature:

“To summarize, over the years, the back-and-forth criticism of protocols, refinement of methods, and successful replication of this type of remote viewing in independent laboratories has yielded considerable scientific evidence for the reality of the [remote viewing] phenomenon. Adding to the strength of these results was the discovery that a growing number of individuals could be found to demonstrate high-quality remote viewing, often to their own surprise. . . . The development of this capability at SRI has evolved to the point where visiting CIA personnel with no previous exposure to such concepts have performed well under controlled laboratory conditions.” (source)

One participant of the program, remote viewer Ingo Swann, was tasked with the job of taking a look at what could be going on off the planet.

Dr. Puthoff explains:

“To determine whether it was necessary to have a ‘beacon’ individual at the target site, Swann suggested carrying out an experiment to remote view the planet Jupiter before the upcoming NASA Pioneer 10 flyby. In that case, much to his chagrin (and ours) he found a ring around Jupiter, and wondered if perhaps he had remote viewed Saturn by mistake. Our colleagues in astronomy were quite unimpressed as well, until the flyby revealed that an unanticipated ring did in fact exist.”

The Takeaway

Why do we still ridicule parapsychology? It’s correlated with quantum physics, and it seems to be the next logical step for science. The fact that this type of study is not included within mainstream media is truly a shame, and it’s not fair that government agencies are the only ones who seem to be actively and heavily engaged in this type of study.

At the end of they day, no skeptic can deny the reality of parapsychological phenomena.

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