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Chimps & Humans Console Victims in Surprisingly Similar Ways

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Yesterday there was a horrific car accident just steps from my home. Upon hearing the sound of the crash, several neighbours ran to the street to make sure everyone was okay. As several ambulance arrived, and we caught a glimpse of the situation, many of us began to gasp. Looking over at my friend, I saw she was crying.

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Though my friend did not know the victims, she was clearly affected. My reaction was to hug her, and keep hugging her as we both felt this innate worry and sadness for the victims of the crash.

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This instance — of consoling, and of empathy — would later remind me of a recent study Marie Lindegaard, a scientist at the Netherlands Institute for the Study of Crime and Law Enforcement, led.

The study reviewed 22 commercial robberies in order to better understand the behaviour of victims and bystanders.

One of the crimes involved four black-clad gunmen rushing into a Netherlands supermarket, the security camera capturing them waving a gun in the face of a female employee, who handed over the requested money. Following the crime, nearby male employees approached the victim, talking to her briefly. A female employee left her position at the tobacco counter to give the victim a hug.

“She held the victim in her arms for a very long time, as if the victim was a small baby,” Lindegaard said, “hugging her and moving her back and forth.” Upon this embrace, the victim began to cry.

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Of this crime, and the 21 others reviewed, Lindegaard and her colleagues concluded that women were more likely to console victims. The results were published in the journal PLOS One.

The study also found that if a victim was an employee, another employee was more likely than a stranger to soothe the victim, which is referred to as “social closeness.”

Such findings, among others, suggest that humans are much like other great apes, because only a few species have been scientifically documented consoling victims of aggression: human children, chimpanzees, bonobos, and gorillas.

While previous studies had found chimpanzees and other nonhuman primates to have consolation behaviour similar to human children, the new study is the first to observe consolation in adults. A friendly touch is considered the scientific gesture of consolation for both humans and chimpanzees.

The study, which looked at camera recordings of 249 people and 3,680 possible pairs of interactions, found that gender, social closeness, and the threat of violence played a role, while physical proximity did not. And when violence, whether it be forceful threats or weapons being used, was present, consolation spiked significantly.

“Many human studies based on questionnaires don’t find gender differences in empathy,” said Frans de Waal, a primatologist at Emory University who was not involved with the research. “In real-life observations, however, striking gender differences have been found in children, with girls expressing empathy more often than boys,” said de Waal, who called for more studies like this one, based on observations instead of surveys, “just as in the present study.”

“The reaction by bystanders, such as embracing and touching of the victim, is extremely similar,” de Waal said. “It is the prototypical empathy response of the primates.”

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Attention Readers: We’ve Moved Our Journalism To The Pulse

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A large portion of our journalism that you’re used to seeing on our Collective Evolution platform has now moved over to The Pulse. We will be publishing most of our news articles there, while Collective Evolution focuses more on personal development.

You can follow The Pulse on Telegram, Facebook, Instagram and Twitter.  

We’ve done this for a number of reasons, mainly due to the struggles we’ve had with regards to extreme censorship at Collective Evolution. We hope you join us over at The Pulse in our quest to keep doing what we do!

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Abductions & Car Vandalism – Startling Australian UFO Report Unclassified

Gautam Peddada

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An uncovered Australian report performed by their Department of Defence. “Scientific Intelligence — General — Unidentified Flying Objects” is trending again. Those who have done extensive research on UFOs will find the Australian version of disclosure to be far more intellectually honest than the American version. Albeit it was conducted decades ago.

According to ex-US intelligence official Luis Elizondo, the Defense Department’s Inspector General is presently conducting three reviews. The inquiries vary from the Department of Defense’s handling of UFO claims to Elizondo’s alleged whistleblower retribution. The open IG cases are crucial to Australia’s report because they establish beyond a shadow of a doubt that the US Department of Defense is being dishonest and shady when it comes to the UFO subject. For decades, Australia has been a loyal friend of the United States. Within Australia’s boundaries, they share a military installation (Pine Gap). When a close defense ally’s intelligence agencies determined that the US was not being intellectually honest in its approach, perhaps it is reasonable to conclude that there is more to the tale than the 144 incidents studied since 2004 by the UAPTF.

The CIA became alarmed at the overloading of military communications during the mass sightings of 1952 and considered the possibility that the USSR may take advantage of such a situation.

Australian UFO study.

According to the summary, OSI, acting through the Robertson-Panel, encouraged the USAF to use Project Blue Book to publicly “debunk” UFOs. In a tragic twist of fate, when Australian authorities sought explanations from the US Air Force, the allegation was debunked. The authors of the study were depicted as conspiratorial and even crazy by the US Air Force. Ross Coulthart reported this, and it may be heard in a recent Project Unity interview. Courthart is an award-winning investigative journalist who is drawn to forbidden subjects. He also stated on the same podcast that a senior US Navy official identified as Nat Kobitz told him that the US had been in the midst of reverse-engineering numerous non-human craft. According to his obituary, Mr. Kobitz was a former Director of Research and Development at Naval Sea Systems Command.

Continue reading the entire article at The Pulse. 

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PGA Tour To End COVID Testing For Both Vaccinated & Non-Vaccinated Players

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In Brief

  • The Facts:

    The PGA Tour has announced that it will stop testing players every week, regardless of whether they have been vaccinated or not.

  • Reflect On:

    Are PCR tests appropriate to identify infectious people? Should people who are healthy and not sick be tested at all, anywhere?

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The picture you see above is of John Rahm, a professional golfer on the PGA tour being carted off the golf course after tournament officials told him he had COVID. He was healthy and had no symptoms, yet was forced to withdraw from the tournament. He was told in front of the camera’s, and a big scene was made out of the event. You would think something like that, especially when you are a big time sports figure, would be done behind closed doors with some privacy.

Earlier on in June a spokesperson for the PGA Tour said that more than 50 percent of players on the PGA tour have been vaccinated. Although it seems that the majority of players on the tour will be fully vaccinated judging by this statement, it does leave a fairly large minority who won’t be, and that’s something we’re seeing across the globe as COVID vaccine hesitancy remains high for multiple reasons.

We are pleased to announce, after consultation with PGA Tour medical advisors, that due to the high rate of vaccination among all constituents on the PGA Tour, as well as other positively trending factors across the country, testing for COVID-19 will no longer be required as a condition of competition beginning with the 3M Open. – PGA tour Senior VP Tyler Dennis

The tour recently announced that the testing of players every week will stop starting in July for both the vaccinated and the unvaccinated. This was an unexpected announcement given the fact that, at least it seems in some countries, vaccinated individuals will enjoy previous rights and freedoms that everyone did before the pandemic. Travelling without need to quarantine and possibly in the future not having to be tested could be a few of those privileges. Others may include attending concerts, sporting events, or perhaps even keeping their job depending on whether or not their employer deems it to be mandatory, if that’s even legally possible. We will see what happens.

Luckily for professional golfers, regardless of their vaccination status they won’t have to worry about testing positive for COVID, especially if they’re not sick. This is the appropriate move by the PGA tour, who is represented by their players and it’s a move that the players themselves may have had a say in. It’s important because PCR tests are not designed nor are they appropriate for identifying infectious people. A number of scientists have been emphasizing this since the beginning of the pandemic. More recently, a letter to the editor published in the Journal of infection explain why more than half of al “positive” PCR tests are likely to have been people who are not infectious, otherwise known as “false positives.”

This is why the Swedish Public Health agency has a notice on their website explaining how and why polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests are not useful for determining if someone is infected with COVID or if someone can transmit it to others, and it’s better to use someone who is actually showing symptoms as a judgement call of whether or not they could be infected or free from infection.

PCR tests using a high cycle threshold are extremely sensitive. An article published in the journal Clinical Infectious Diseases found that among positive PCR samples with a cycle count over 35, only 3 percent of the samples showed viral replication. This can be interpreted as, if someone tests positive via PCR when a Ct of 35 or higher is used, the probability that said person is actually infected is less than 3%, and the probability that said result is a false positive is 97 percent. This begs the question, why has Manitoba, Canada, for example, using cycle thresholds of up to 45 to identify “positive” people?

When it comes to golf, the fact that spread occurring in an outdoor setting is highly unlikely could have been a factor, but it’s also important to mention that asymptomatic spread within one’s own household is also considerably rare. It really makes you wonder what’s going on here, doesn’t it?

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