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A Description of the Shape-Shifting Reptilian Beings Written About In Ancient India- “The NAGA”

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Extraterrestrials and UFOs are a very hot topic right now, and have been for quite some time, especially within the past few years. Why? Partly because it’s human nature to ponder the unknown and the mysterious, but it’s also in large part due to the fact that hundreds of high ranking whistle-blowers from around the world with verified credentials, have come forward sharing their stories and experiences regarding intelligent extraterrestrials visiting planet Earth.

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The whistle-blowers range from professors, to NASA astronauts, all the way to high ranking military, political figures, and more. Not only that, to complement these testimonies, thousands of documents pertaining to the UFO/extraterrestrial issue have been released by dozens of governments. UFOs are no longer a fringe topic, and if the past few years have been any indication, more and more evidence is surely to surface as we move through 2017 and beyond.

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You can view our heavily sourced articles pertaining to this subject, filled with documents and testimony, by sifting through the exopolitics section of our website here.

When it comes to supposed encounters with extraterrestrials, it’s very interesting for multiple reasons. Firstly, many stories shared by contactees corroborate quite well with each other. Many people report encounters with human looking extraterrestrials who are concerned with our planet and well-being. Others have reported the typical grey alien, human looking aliens with different colour skin, like blue, to reptilian type extraterrestrials. The key factor to remember here is, not all of these interactions are ET, some are simply US military. Knowing the truth about who’s doing what can be very tricky.

To find out more about this. You can refer to the articles we’ve published earlier below:

The Star People: Extraterrestrials From A Native American/First Nations Persepctive

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The Most Commonly Reported Extraterrestrials By Contactees, Abductees & Experiencers

Supposed Pictures of Real Extraterrestrial Beings: Do You Think They Would Look So Similar To Us?

The NAGA 

The NAGA are said to be a race of non-human reptilian-type beings. They are found in the literature of multiple ancient cultures across the globe, especially within ancient Jainism, Hindu, and  ‘mythology.’

They were considered to be semi-divine beings, half human and half reptilian who can either take on a full serpentine form or a fully human form. According to the legends, these beings existed underground and inside of the Earth, in large kingdoms. They were considered both beneficial and friendly to humans, as well as potentially dangerous. (source)

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According to encyclopedia Britannica:

“The female nagas (naginis or nagis) are serpent princesses of striking beauty. The dynasties of Manipur in northeastern India, the Pallavas in southern India, and the ruling family of Funan (ancient Indochina) each claimed an origin in the union of a human being and a nagi.

In Buddhism, nagas are often represented as door guardians or, as in Tibet, as minor deities. The naga king Muchalinda, who sheltered the Buddha from rain for seven days while he was deep in meditation, is beautifully depicted in the 9th–13th century Mon-Khmer Buddhas of what are now Thailand and Cambodia. In Jainism the Tirthankara (saviour) Parshvanatha is always shown with a canopy of naga hoods above his head.”

Naga’s were also considered as protectors of the Buddha and of the dharma, some (like David Icke) even claim that they were present at the birth of Buddha, despite the fact that they were still considered dangerous, especially when angered.

One example where the Naga’s are referenced in ancient scripture comes from the Mahabharata, where the Buddha actually protected Naga’s from an attack by half human half bird like creatures, Garuda. After this battle, both the Naga’s and Garudas.

According to Barbara O’Brien, a journalist and student of Zen Buddhism, “In a legend of Tibetan Buddhism, once a great lama names Sakya Yeshe and his attendants were returning to Tibet from China. He carried invaluable copies of sutras given him by the Emperor. Somehow the precious texts fell into a river and were hopelessly lost. The travelers kept on and returned home to their monastery….When they arrived, they learned that an old man had delivered some sutras to the monastery for Sakya Yeshe. It was the Emperor’s gift, still slightly damp but intact. The old man apparently had bee a Naga in disguise.”

She goes on to give more examples:

“In the Muccalinda Sutta (Khuddaka Nikaya, Udana 2.1), the Buddha was sitting in deep meditation as a storm approached. A naga king named Muccalinda spread his great cobra hood over the Buddha to shelter him from the rain and cold.

In the Himavanta Sutta (Samyutta Nikaya 46.1) the Buddha used nagas in a parable. The nagas depend on the mountains of the Himalayas for strength, he said. When they are strong enough, they descend to small lakes and streams, then to larger lakes and rivers, and eventually to the great ocean. In the ocean, they attain greatness and prosperity. In the same way, monks are to depend on virtue developed through the Seven Factors of Enlightenment (mindfulness, investigation, energy, happiness, tranquility, concentration, equanimity) to attain greatness of mental qualities.” (source)

Modern Day Claims of Reptilian Type Beings

william

To the left you will see a picture of William Tompkins and Admiral Larry Marsh. As a teenager Tompkins had an eye for detail and loved to create Navy ship and submarine models. The Navy took interest in his capabilities and recruited him to do work on advanced technology projects. Recently, he has come forward with claims, as many others have, revealing information about clandestine black budget operation programs.

These are Special Access Programs (SAP). From these we have unacknowledged and waived SAPs. These programs do not exist publicly, but they do indeed exist. They are better known as ‘deep black programs.’ A 1997 U.S. Senate report described them as “so sensitive that they are exempt from standard reporting requirements to the Congress.” (source)

We have no idea what goes on in these programs, except from those who have worked within them, like Edward Snowden.

To read more about the black budget in detail, click here.

Tompkins has been speaking about supposed Reptilian beings within the past few years. Below is an interview he did with Dr. Michael E. Salla, Ph.D., an internationally recognized scholar in international politics, conflict resolution and U.S. foreign policy. He is a pioneer in the development of ‘Exopolitics.’

It’s interesting that legend suggests these beings could shape-shift into human form, because today, many people actually believe that some high-ranking politicians and royal families have bloodline ties to these beings and consider them actual shapeshifters. This theory has been around for some time, but was popularized by David Icke.

Icke was one of the pioneers that woke us up to the fact that mankind has been manipulated to become “unconscious” through the use of programming by media and politics, the tyrannical control over our food, water, and air supply, the dumbing down of the masses by pharmaceutical drugs and alcohol, and the list goes on.

According to Icke, there is a bloodline that has been strategically kept intact for ages. The Burkes Peerage and Baronetage, a comprehensive aristocratic genealogy resource, reveals that all 44 U.S. presidents have carried European royal bloodlines into office over the course of history. This includes Bill Clinton, the Bush family, Barack Obama, John Kerry, and so on and so forth. If we truly live in a democratic system, how is it that every single person brought into office has been of French and European royal descent?

What are the chances of this considering the U.S. fought for their independence of Europe in the 1700s? The Burkes Peerage makes a strong suggestion that elections are not really based on a public voting system, but rather, they are based upon the highest percentage of royal genes. To make things even more peculiar is the fact that Brad Pitt, Madonna, Marilyn Monroe, and Tom hanks (some of Hollywood’s biggest stars) also descend from this lineage. What could all of this imply?

bloodlineAccording to Icke, and others, there are reptilian type extra-dimensional beings that the globalists worship who stem from the constellations Orion, Sirius, and Draco. Thousands of years ago, the reptilian beings intervened on planet Earth and began interbreeding with humans. Not physically, however, but rather through the manipulation of the human coding, or DNA.  Icke states that it is no coincidence that humans have fundamental reptilian genetics within their brain. He refers to an excerpt from the Bible, which hints at the crossbreeding of men and “gods.”

“There were giants in the earth in those days; and also after that, when the songs of God came in unto the daughters of men, and they bear children to them, the same became mighty men which were of old, men of renown.”

– Genesis, 6:4

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Icke isn’t the only one.

Icke recounts in his seminar about his discussions with Credo Mutwa, a South-African based Zulu shaman, during which Mutwa tells of African legends about the Chitauri, the reptilian like “gods” who ascended from the heavens in monstrous vessels which burned through the atmosphere. These so-called gods became the dictators of the people, taking away the potentiality and power of the human race.

One other thing that our people say is that the Chitauri prey upon us like vultures. They raise some of us. They fill some of us with great anger and great ambition. And they make these people they’ve raised into great warriors who make terrible war. But, in the end, the Chitauri do not allow these great leaders, these great war chiefs and kings, to die peacefully. The warrior chief is used to make as much war as possible, to kill as many of his people and those he calls enemies, and then, in the end, the warrior chief dies a terrible death, with his blood being spilled by others.” (2), Credo Mutwa on the reptilian-hyrbid leaders.

For more information on Icke and his view on supposed reptilians, you can read this detailed article we published on the subject a few years ago.

This is just a brief introduction regarding reptilian type beings. There exists countless amounts of literature from ancient mythology, as well as modern investigations.

Are They ‘Negative’ or ‘Bad?’

Inevitably this question ALWAYS comes up during this discussion. And here lies one of the most important factors of our time that we must remember when it comes to all people, ET’s and groups in general: we cannot look at anything or anyone as generally “bad” or “negative.” This is not what this is about. Even the cabal who do what they do will not be brought to justice or changed by us creating a negative outlook on what they are doing and fighting them back. In every way, this is about one thing: shifting our consciousness.

There is a big call for justice when it comes to cabal actions and truly this comes down to how one seeks justice. By exposing what is going on, the world will know what these souls have done, they will be outed, they will face the emotions of the people, and so forth.  But do we have to throw them in a 6 x 8 cell for them to have been served justice? That’s one definition of it but I also think it’s primitive and solves nothing.

Let people decide from a point of view that isn’t driven by hatred, which only creates more war and problems. What if we asked: How can we help people? How can we isolate them safely for a period of time but assist them? These are the tough questions that most people don’t want to face because they are driven by emotion, but I feel these are the questions of a society that is evolving and one that would be civilized. A worldview founded in judgment and hatred towards certain things is not civilized.

Interesting to think about. What are your thoughts?

Dive Deeper

These days, it’s not just knowing information and facts that will create change, it’s changing ourselves, how we go about communicating, and re-assessing the underlying stories, ideas and beliefs that form our world. We have to practice these things if we truly want to change. At Collective Evolution and CETV, this is a big part of our mission.

Amongst 100's of hours of exclusive content, we have recently completed two short courses to help you become an effective changemaker, one called Profound Realization and the other called How To Do An Effective Media Detox.

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Consciousness

CIA Document: “Using Psychic Powers To Break Needles & Make Them Whole Again”

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In Brief

  • The Facts:

    A document archived inside of the CIA's electronic reading room shows that a person with gifted "paranormal" abilities was able to break/bend a needle, and then put it back together again without even touching it.

  • Reflect On:

    How much do we not know about ourselves and our abilities? How much do we still have to discover? How much of that would change the way we perceives ourselves, our world and the nature of reality?

If you go to the CIA’s electronic reading room and type in “paranormal” in the search bar, you’ll no doubt find some very interesting documents clearly indicating that people with ‘paranormal’ abilities are indeed real. There are many examples of people with all kinds of abilities, whether it be remote viewing (the ability to accurately describe a remote geographical location), the ability of gifted people and children able to transport a small object inside a closed container to another one that’s outside of that container without touching it (breaking through spatial barriers), or the ability to write on a piece of paper inside of a closed container using nothing but the mind, without even touching the pen (parapsychological writing). These are a few of many examples we’ve written about over the past decade.

The document that pertains to this particular article comes from the CIA archive, approved for release in 2001 but the work was actually published in 1984 from what appears to be a journal titled, Research Into Human Paranormal Capabilities. The document was archived by the CIA and it’s from China. It’s one of a trove of documents archived by the CIA regarding China’s research into paranormal phenomena.

Page 27 of the document outlines “an experiment using psychic powers to break needles and making them whole again.”

There have already been several research reports on experiments on using psychic powers to bend iron and break wooden sticks and making them whole again. This article reports the results of an experiment conducted on using psychic powers to break needles and making them whole again in April of 1981.

In the experiment, the needles were places in a sealed container, and the test subject (the person with paranormal abilities) was observed constantly by more than one person.

We selected at random a steel sewing needle of about 1mm diameter. We used callipers to measure its total length. Then we broke the needle into two parts. We then measured the lengths L1 and L2. The person conducting the experiment kept L2, and L1 was used as the test object. After it was psychically broken, a magnifying glass was used to match up the break between L1 and L2, and the length was checked to make sure it was the same needle. 

Researchers were able to observe that the L1 portion of the needle was broken psychically.

A Picture below from the document shows the broken end of a number 4 needle magnified 50 times. Picture 2 shows the same broken end magnified 1,000 times. Results of the analysis shows that that particular test object was pulled apart and not bent until  broken. According to the document, “this result confirms the reality of breaking needles with psychic powers from yet another aspect.”

In may of 1981 we used an electron scan microscope to analyze the seam of a needle that had been reformed with psychic powers. Picture 3 shows such a seam magnified 1,000 times. The results show that there is only the normal seam lines, and no signs of any welding. This is almost impossible to do using common methods.

We feel that the ability to break and reform needles is a psychic ability which objectively exists, and that further research into this ability, especially into the process of the super-precision reforming, could have major theoretical and practical implications.

The Takeaway:

As the Chinese Institute of Atomic Energy pointed out in 1991, in a study archived by the CIA:

“Such phenomena and paranormal abilities of the human body are unimaginable for ordinary people. Nevertheless they are really true.”

There are a number of examples of gifted people doing extraordinary things, things that are deemed impossible my mainstream academia. Perhaps what we believe about the nature of reality, or what we’ve been made to believe, prevents some minds from being open to such phenomenon, but the fact remains that it’s been studied, observed and documented at the highest levels of government for many years.

We live in an era where we use technological advancements to build weaponry, not to better the Earth and the human experience. In the same way, psychic phenomenon seems to have been studied by governments for intelligence gathering purposes.  These capabilities are not openly studied and resources aren’t made widely available for people to learn. This is perhaps because we as a species are not ready for such realizations. We continue to be driven by greed, profit, fear, and ago. Until we raise our consciousness, the way we perceive ourselves and our world and recognize our deep interconnectedness with all life, until our world is governed by compassion, morals, and the desire for humanity and our planet to thrive, we will never be ready for such gifts. We must evolve, in a spiritual sense, in order to properly move forward. It’s no our discoveries and developments that propel us forward, it’s the consciousness that operates behind those discoveries and developments.

Dive Deeper

These days, it’s not just knowing information and facts that will create change, it’s changing ourselves, how we go about communicating, and re-assessing the underlying stories, ideas and beliefs that form our world. We have to practice these things if we truly want to change. At Collective Evolution and CETV, this is a big part of our mission.

Amongst 100's of hours of exclusive content, we have recently completed two short courses to help you become an effective changemaker, one called Profound Realization and the other called How To Do An Effective Media Detox.

Join CETV, engage with these courses and more here!

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Alternative News

Another Lawsuit Filed Against Merck Claiming HPV Gardasil Vaccine Caused Debilitating Injury

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In Brief

  • The Facts:

    Another lawsuit has been filed alleging severe injury and disability as a result of the HPV vaccine. This time it's on behalf of Sahara Walker, a 19 year old girl from Wisconsin who suffered debilitating injuries after receiving the vaccine.

  • Reflect On:

    Why are concerns regarding vaccinations always unacknowledged by mainstream media? Why are those who raise concerns always considered "anti-vax conspiracy theorists?"

What Happened: Baum Hedlund Aristei & Goldman, a law firm based in the United States, along with attorney Robert F. Kennedy Jr recently filed their fourth lawsuit against Merck on behalf of Sahara Walker. Walker is a 19 year old girl from Wisconsin who suffered debilitating injuries from the Gardasil HPV vaccine.

Two days after she took the vaccine, she starting vomiting and experiencing headaches, sever body aces, extreme fatigue that had her bed ridden where she remained, unless she used a wheelchair.

Over time Sarah’s symptoms became more severe. In 2015 her medication schedule rose to 55 pills a day while she endured 54 doctor appointments. She was eventually diagnosed with neurocardiogenic syncope, postural  postural orthostatic tachycardia (POTS), a form of orthostatic intolerance called orthostatic hypotension, small fiber neuropathy and severe autoimmune autonomic neuropathy.

An article written by Kennedy explains,

Today, Sahara, 19, takes 14 prescription medications and receives an expensive intravenous immunoglobulin treatment every three weeks.

“I want to warn kids of the terrible risks for this vaccine and let other injured girls know that they are not alone,” Sahara explained. “The Gardasil vaccine stole my life. Before Gardasil, my future was filled with endless possibilities. Now, my life is a parade of accommodations and medical interventions. It’s not how a 19 year old should live. I’m fighting for all of us.”

If Merck had warned Sahara’s mother about Gardasil’s dangers, she never would have allowed her daughter to receive the HPV vaccine.

“We are pro-vaccine, but we would have never had Sahara get Gardasil if we knew the risks,” Sahara’s mother said. “She went from perfectly healthy to sick and disabled within days of the shot. It’s beyond any doubt that Gardasil caused her injuries.”

Internal documents showed that Merck cherry-picked its own data to mislead the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and doctors about Gardasil’s safety and efficacy. We aim to get justice for Sahara and others impacted and to force Merck to stop defrauding the public so that we can protect our children.

Why This Is Important: Deaths and permanent disabilities have been reported as a result of the HPV vaccine all across the globe for many years.

For example, researchers from Mexico’s National Institute of Cardiology pored over 28 studies published through January 2017—16 randomized trials and 12 post-marketing case series—pertaining to the three human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines currently on the market globally. In their July 2017 peer-reviewed report, the authors, Manuel Martínez-Lavin and Luis Amezcua-Guerra, uncovered evidence of numerous adverse events, including life-threatening injuries, permanent disabilities, hospitalizations and deaths, reported after vaccination with GlaxoSmithKline’s bivalent Cervarix vaccine and Merck’s quadrivalent or nine-valent HPV vaccines (Gardasil and Gardasil 9)

Japan stopped recommending the HPV vaccine as a result of serious adverse reactions. Multiple films have documented this phenomenon, we’ve written about one of them before called Sacrificial Virgins.

There are a number of documented examples from all over the world, and they are full of debate between the manufacturer and the person injured with regards to whether or not the vaccine actually played any role in the injuries and deaths. For example, A 14-year-old boy named Christopher Bunch passed away more than a year ago, and the mother and father are claiming that it was as a result of the HPV vaccine. His mother started a petition over a year ago claiming that her son “died as a direct result of the HPV vaccine.”

On January 26th, the father of the boy, Elijah Eugene Mendoza-Bunch, wrote this via his Facebook page,

So back on December 11th 2019 I sent an email to CEO Ken Frazier of Merck song to speak with him about the HPV VACCINE and how it killed my son and how it is destroying lives. Well here we are January 25th (the day I got it in the mail) and this is the response from Merck….

You can view their response and read more about that story here.

These are just a few of many examples.

Science Calling The Vaccine Into Question: A new study published in The Royal Society of Medicine is one of multiple studies over the years that has emerged questioning the efficacy of the HPV vaccine. The researchers conducted an appraisal of published phase 2 and 3 efficacy trials in relation to the prevention of cervical cancer and their analysis showed “the trials themselves generated significant uncertainties undermining claims of efficacy” in the data they used. The researchers emphasized that “it is still uncertain whether human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination prevents cervical cancer as trials were not designed to detect this outcome, which takes decades to develop.”  The researchers point out that the trials used to test the vaccine may have “overestimated” the efficacy of the vaccine.

 A study published in 2013 in Current Pharmaceutical Design carried out a review of HPV vaccine pre- and post-licensure trials to assess the evidence of their effectiveness and safety. They found that,

HPV vaccine clinical trials design, and data interpretation of both efficacy and safety outcomes, were largely inadequate. Additionally, we note evidence of selective reporting of results from clinical trials (i.e., exclusion of vaccine efficacy figures related to study subgroups in which efficacy might be lower or even negative from peer-reviewed publications). Given this, the widespread optimism regarding HPV vaccines long-term benefits appears to rest on a number of unproven assumptions (or such which are at odds with factual evidence) and significant misinterpretation of available data.

For example, the claim that HPV vaccination will result in approximately 70% reduction of cervical cancers is made despite the fact that the clinical trials data have not demonstrated to date that the vaccines have actually prevented a single case of cervical cancer (let alone cervical cancer death), nor that the current overly optimistic surrogate marker-based extrapolations are justified. Likewise, the notion that HPV vaccines have an impressive safety profile is only supported by highly flawed design of safety trials and is contrary to accumulating evidence from vaccine safety surveillance databases and case reports which continue to link HPV vaccination to serious adverse outcomes (including death and permanent disabilities).

We thus conclude that further reduction of cervical cancers might be best achieved by optimizing cervical screening (which carries no such risks) and targeting other factors of the disease rather than by the reliance on vaccines with questionable efficacy and safety profiles.

Vaccine ingredients have also come under a lot of scrutiny over the years, especially aluminum, and the HPV vaccine contains aluminum.

“There has not been any clinical trials designed and carried out to test the safety of aluminum adjuvants. Not a single clinical safety trial for any vaccine that includes an aluminum adjuvant.” – Professor Christopher Exley, Professor of Bioinorganic Chemistry and group leader of the Bioinorganic Chemistry Laboratory at Keele University.

It’s concerning that aluminum hasn’t been tested for safety.  Dr. Martin Howell Friede, Coordinator of Initiative For Vaccine Research at the World Health Organization mentioned at a WHO vaccine conference at the end of 2019, that there are clinical studies that blame adjuvants for adverse events seen as a result of administering vaccines, and how people in general often blame adverse reactions to vaccines being the result of the vaccine adjuvant. You can find a link to that conference and read more about it here.

Professor Christopher Shaw from the University of British Columbia in Canada explains that injected aluminum doesn’t come into the same methods of excretion as the aluminum we take in from food, for example. When we inject aluminum, it stays in the body, it may cross the blood brain barrier, enter into cells and various organs in the body.

When you inject aluminum, it goes into a different compartment of your body. It doesn’t come into that same mechanism of excretion. So, and of course it can’t because that’s the whole idea of aluminum adjuvants, aluminum adjuvants are meant to stick around and allow that antigen to be presented over and over and over again persistently, otherwise you wouldn’t put an adjuvant in in the first place. It can’t be inert, because if it were inert it couldn’t do the things it does. It can’t be excreted because again it couldn’t provide that prolonged exposure of the antigen to your immune system. – Dr. Christopher Shaw –  Canadian neuroscientist and professor of ophthalmology at the University of British Columbia (source)

In 2018, shaw published a paper in the Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry that found almost 100 percent of the intramuscularly injected aluminum in mice as vaccine adjuvants was absorbed into the systemic circulation and traveled to different sites in the body such as the brain, the joints, and the spleen where it accumulated and was retained for years post-vaccination. (source)

Exley and a team of scientists published a paper in the Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology titled “The role of aluminum adjuvants in vaccines raises issues that deserve independent, rigorous and honest science.” In their publication, they provide evidence for their position that “the safety of aluminium-based vaccine adjuvants, like that of any environmental factor presenting a risk of neurotoxicity and to which the young child is exposed, must be seriously evaluated without further delay, particularly at a time when the CDC is announcing a still increasing prevalence of autism spectrum disorders, of 1 child in 54 in the USA.”

The publication goes on to address concerns it has with another paper that was published a year prior, emphasizing that the authors of that specific publication, JP Goullé & L Grangeot-Keros,

The Takeaway: Did you know that the National Childhood Vaccine Injury (NCVIA) Act has paid  out nearly $4 billion dollars to families of vaccine injured children? This is not money coming from the pharmaceutical company. The NCVIA insures that these payments come from taxpayers, the pharmaceutical companies are not held liable. Vaccines are a liability free product.

Why is any type of information that paints vaccines in a ‘negative’ light completely unacknowledged in the mainstream? Does the information in the article alone not warrant some sort of discussion, or at least some sort of acknowledgement as to why some people are concerned?

Why does mainstream media always use terms lie “anti-vax conspiracy theorist” and ridicule? More important than facts and who is right or wrong is our ability to communicate with each other without consequences. We must learn to see the perspective of those who disagree with us, and understand and feel why they feel the way they do. This needs to be our focus, if we can’t get along with people who disagree with us, we are never going to move forward and this applies to everyone.

I would argue that there is more than enough information out there regarding vaccinations that support the idea of informed consent instead of mandatory measures.

 

Dive Deeper

These days, it’s not just knowing information and facts that will create change, it’s changing ourselves, how we go about communicating, and re-assessing the underlying stories, ideas and beliefs that form our world. We have to practice these things if we truly want to change. At Collective Evolution and CETV, this is a big part of our mission.

Amongst 100's of hours of exclusive content, we have recently completed two short courses to help you become an effective changemaker, one called Profound Realization and the other called How To Do An Effective Media Detox.

Join CETV, engage with these courses and more here!

Continue Reading

Awareness

New Research Adds Evidence That Weed Killer Glyphosate Disrupts Hormones

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New research is adding worrisome evidence to concerns that the widely used weed killing chemical glyphosate may have the potential to interfere with human hormones.

In a paper published in the journal Chemosphere titled Glyphosate and the key characteristics of an endocrine disruptor: A review, a trio of scientists concluded that glyphosate appears to have eight out of ten key characteristics associated with endocrine disrupting chemicals . The authors cautioned, however, that prospective cohort studies are still needed to more clearly understand the impacts of glyphosate on the human endocrine system.

The authors, Juan Munoz, Tammy Bleak and Gloria Calaf, each affiliated with the University of Tarapacá in Chile, said their paper is the first review to consolidate the mechanistic evidence on glyphosate as an endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC).

Some of the evidence suggests that Roundup, Monsanto’s well-known glyphosate-based herbicide, can alter the biosynthesis of the sexual hormones, according to the researchers.

EDCs may mimic or interfere with the body’s hormones and are linked with developmental and reproductive problems as well as brain and immune system dysfunction.

The new paper follows publication earlier this year of an assortment of animal studies that indicated glyphosate exposures impact reproductive organs and threaten fertility.

Glyphosate is the world’s most widely used herbicide, sold in 140 countries. Introduced commercially in 1974 by Monsanto Co, the chemical is the active ingredient in popular products such as Roundup and hundreds of other weed killers used by consumers, municipalities, utilities, farmers, golf course operators, and others around the world.

Dana Barr, a professor at Emory University’s Rollins School of Public Health, said the evidence “tends to overwhelmingly indicate that glyphosate has endocrine disrupting properties.”

“It’s not necessarily unexpected since glyphosate has some structural similarities with many other endocrine disrupting pesticides; however, it is more concerning because glyphosate use far surpasses other pesticides,” said Barr, who directs a program within a National Institutes of Health-funded human exposure research center housed at Emory. “Glyphosate is used on so many crops and in so many residential applications such that aggregate and cumulative exposures can be considerable.”

Phil Landrigan, director of the Global Observatory on Pollution and Health, and a professor of biology
at Boston College, said the review pulled together “strong evidence” that glyphosate is an endocrine disruptor.

“The report is consistent with a larger body of literature indicating that glyphosate has a wide range of adverse health effects – findings that overturn Monsanto’s long-standing portrayal of glyphosate as a benign chemical with no negative impacts on human health,” said Landrigan.

EDCs have been a subject of concern since the 1990s after a series of publications suggested that some chemicals commonly used in pesticides, industrial solvents, plastics, detergents, and other substances could have the capacity to disrupt connections between hormones and their receptors.

Scientists generally recognized ten functional properties of agents that alter hormone action, referring to these as ten “key characteristics” of endocrine-disruptors. The ten characteristics are as follows:

EDC’s can:

  • Alter hormone distribution of circulating levels of hormones
  • Induce alterations in hormone metabolism or clearance
  • Alter the fate of hormone-producing or hormone-responsive cells
  • Alter hormone receptor expression
  • Antagonize hormone receptors
  • Interact with or activate hormone receptors
  • Alter signal transduction in hormone-responsive cells
  • Induce epigenetic modifications in hormone-producing or hormone-responsive cells
  • Alter hormone synthesis
  • Alter hormone transport across cell membranes

The authors of the new paper said a review of the mechanistic data showed that glyphosate met all of the key characteristics with the exception of two:  “Regarding glyphosate, there is no evidence associated with the antagonistic capacity of hormonal receptors,” they said. As well, “there is no evidence of its impact on hormonal metabolism or clearance,” according to the authors.

Research over the last few decades has largely focused on links found between glyphosate and cancer, particularly non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL.) In 2015, the World Health Organization’s International Agency for Research on Cancer classified glyphosate as a probable human carcinogen.

More than 100,000 people have sued Monsanto in the United States alleging exposure to the company’s glyphosate-based herbicides caused them or their loved ones to develop NHL.

The plaintiffs in the nationwide litigation also claim Monsanto has long sought to hide the risks of its herbicides. Monsanto lost three out of three trials and its German owner Bayer AG has spent the last year and a half trying to settle the litigation out of court.

The authors of the new paper took note of the ubiquitous nature of glyphosate, saying “massive use” of the chemical has “led to a wide environmental diffusion,” including rising exposures tied to human consumption of the weed killer through food.

The researchers said that though regulators say the levels of glyphosate residue commonly found in foods are low enough to be safe, they “cannot rule out” a “potential risk” to people consuming foods containing contaminated with the chemical,  particularly grains and other plant-based foods, which often have higher levels than milk, meat or fish products.

U.S. government documents show glyphosate residues have been detected in a range of foods, including organic honey, and granola and crackers.

Canadian government researchers have also reported glyphosate residues in foods. One report issued in 2019 by scientists from Canada’s Agri-Food Laboratories at the Alberta Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry found glyphosate in 197 of 200 samples of honey they examined.

Despite the concerns about glyphosate impacts on human health, including through dietary exposure, U.S. regulators have steadfastly defended the safety of the chemical. The Environmental Protection Agency maintains that it has not found any human health risks from exposure to glyphosate.”

Written by Carey Gillam, research director of U.S. Right to Know, where it was originally posted. 

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