Important Note from Collective Evolution: Before reading, please keep in mind that we’ve published multiple, heavily sourced articles regarding the GMO/Vaccine issues.
Many of our articles regarding vaccines come from Robert F. Kennedy Jr of The World Mercury Project. You can view them HERE, all of the most recent up-to-date science regarding this issue can be found there.
Below is an article written by the Collective Evolution core team, but there are multiple dozens on our site. This one in particular gives a general overview of the science and information out there as to why more parents are choosing not to vaccinate their children.
To read our articles on the Gardasil /HPV vaccine, you can click here.
When it comes to the GMO debate, you can refer to the below articles for why our stance is the way it is on that topic:
Many anti-GMO activists are convinced there is a connection between glyphosate along with genetically engineered foods, and the increasing levels of autism in children. My research has led me to put the blame for autism and other developmental disorders at the feet of the vaccine industry but in reality I think that both the biotechnology and the vaccine industries are implicated in the exponential rates of these diseases and other adverse health events.
Jeffrey Smith is the author of Seeds of Deception: Exposing Industry and Government Lies about the Safety of the Genetically Engineered Foods You’re Eating, and Genetic Roulette: The Gamble of Our Lives. In a presentation called The Real Truth about GMO’s he speaks about how the consumption of genetically modified foods are causing all sorts of health issues such as gut problems, brain fog, allergies, skin rashes, fatigue, asthma, and autism and that these conditions improve when eating GMO food ceases. In fact, thousands of US doctors are now prescribing GM free diets.
The revolution is beginning.
However a few notes on how we have arrived at this point are in order.
Tragically, Monsanto, otherwise known as the “most evil corporation on Earth” with their dirty products such as Agent Orange and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB’s), is in charge of our food supply. This is a company which along with Archer Daniels Midland, Sodexo and Tyson Foods were responsible for The Food Safety Modernization Act of 2009: HR 875 which gave the corporate factory farms a virtual monopoly to police and control all foods grown anywhere, including one’s own backyard
The FDA declares that testing of these novel genetic modifications is not required before they are released. Monsanto merely needs to tell the FDA that their products are safe. That is all that is needed before they are sold, and then eaten by the public.
However many studies show very real problems in animals fed GM food. One of these independent studies found that buffalo, goats and sheep in India are dying after grazing on Bt cotton plants. Those who care for the animals are also getting sick with skin rashes and respiratory issues.
Jeffrey Smith describes the production of a genetically modified organism (GMO)
A bacterium such as Bacillus thuringiensis is used to create a corn plant that is able to produce its own toxic insecticide. The Bt toxin from the bacillus makes holes in the cell walls of insects to kill them. From there the gene from the bacterium is used to make millions of copies which are shot via a gene gun into millions of corn cells – with the hope that genes find their way into the DNA of some of the cells, which are then cloned, becoming Bt corn.
Massive damage is caused to the DNA of the plant by this process of insertion and cloning in that 2-4% of the DNA is changed. This is significant, for these changes may result in an increase or decrease in the amount of proteins in the plant. The changes may also mean that some genes are shut off or that silent genes are turned on.
But did the regulators and the biotech industry look for these changes before the GM corn went on the market? Incredibly and inexcusably they did not. With the GM corn already in the food supply an independent scientist found there were 43 proteins that had changed in the process of creating the corn. One gene that was previously silent had been switched on and was a known allergen, able to cause allergy or death in the susceptible consumer. There were also other proteins that during the process of cloning had changed shape. According to Smith such changes are important and can cause no harm or can be lethal. And yet the regulators don’t believe this experimental stuff needs testing.
This is really alarming in that greater than 90% of all soybean, cotton and corn acreage in the U.S. is used to grow genetically engineered crops. Other approved novel foods include sugar beets, alfalfa, canola, papaya and summer squash.
Of this runaway technology Jeffrey Smith claims:
We are taking the products of this immature science causing massive damage to the most compactified level of nature – the DNA.
But in the eyes of Monsanto the ideal future looks like this:
One hundred per cent of all commercial seeds would be GM and patented.
As Jeffrey Smith has said:
They are planning to replace nature. This is a pivotal time.
The main reason for genetically engineering plants is to sell more herbicide. Yes, this gamble with the very basis of life is so our food can be sprayed with poison. Every year 2 billion kilograms of the water soluble carcinogen – Glyphosate is used worldwide. It’s in our air, in our rainfall, in the plants, our food and in our bodies.
Glyphosate binds with plant minerals so these nutrients are unavailable for the plant. In the process, plants are made deficient in nutrients and become weak and sick and so do the animals who eat the plants. We eat the crops and the sick animals and it’s no surprise that we too, fall ill. The reason it is such a successful herbicide is because it deprives the plants of nutrients and creating diseases in the soil around it.
As to how the consumption of Glyphosate affects humans…
Glyphosate blocks the shikimate pathway in our gut. The bacteria in our bodies use this important pathway to create L-Tryptophan, an essential amino acid that is so important to our well being. Mood and behaviour are improved when we switch to organic foods.
The currently accepted dogma is that glyphosate is not harmful to humans because the shikimate pathway is absent in all animals. However, this pathway is present in both human and mammal’s gut bacteria, which play a massively important and heretofore largely overlooked role in human physiology
Some actions we can take to remove our food supply from this corporate power:
- Ensure that what we eat is natural
- Grow our own food
- Ask restaurants whether their food is GM. Menus are now gluten free so how about asking for a GM free menu.
- Sharing information about GM foods and how to avoid them
And as we spread the word about GMO’s we must also protest the number of chemically laden vaccines our children now receive. In the US the number of vaccines given to children from birth to the age of 18 years is now 74 doses.
The wise words of osteopathic physician and anti-vaccination activist Dr Sherri Tenpenny come to mind:
True health cannot come from a needle. Injecting people with something to try to keep them well is a 200 year mistake.
The rate of autism in the US is now 1 in 25. Of course autism isn’t the only adverse event that frequently occurs after vaccination. Chronic pain conditions, seizures, gastro-intestinal disorders, arthritis in its many forms, diabetes and infertility are among the huge and ever growing list of side effects.
A vaccine that has the highest number of adverse events of any vaccine is Gardasil the HPV vaccine that is marketed as preventative against cervical cancer even though there is no proof that the vaccine has ever prevented a single case of cervical cancer in the world. Brian Hooker, father of a vaccine-damaged child speaking in Vaccines Revealed calls it:
A dirty vaccine…loaded with aluminium. Aluminium doesn’t belong in the human body.
But in spite of the fact that there are now over 81,000 recorded adverse events following the administration of Gardasil the manufacturers are trialling it on babies. This sadly is true. We urgently need to turn this around.
But not before a new cohort of 12-13 year-olds are injected with the latest HPV vaccine. Gardasil 9 has 5 more antigens and more than twice the amount of aluminium per shot than Gardasil.
From the start of this school year Australian teenagers will be injected with Gardasil 9 replacing the quadrivalent Gardasil.
Lack of safety studies on Gardasil 9
In 2014 the US FDA approved the use of Gardasil 9 for females ages 9 to 26 years and males ages 9 to 15 years for prevention of vulvar, vaginal, anal, and cervical cancers. Gardasil 9 is marketed as protective against nine HPV types: 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58.
Even though the vaccine is new, the approval by the FDA was completed without the usual review given by the VRBPAC (the Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee). The committee is responsible for reviewing and evaluating the safety of vaccines and other health products.
A letter to the FDA from Marion Gruber, Director of Office of Vaccines Research and Review CBER gives the reason for their decision:
Our review of information submitted in your BLA (biologics license application) including the clinical study design and trial results, did not raise concerns or controversial issues which would have benefited from an advisory committee discussion.
But there is much evidence to suggest that this review needed to be done. Rather than use an inert placebo such as normal saline, Gardasil 9 was compared directly to the quadrivalent Gardasil in two of the studies. A comparison with Gardasil is hardly reassuring for there have been thousands of adverse events and hundreds of deaths following its administration.
These are 2 very different vaccines. Gardasil 9 has 5 more antigens than the quadrivalent Gardasil. Also in Gardasil 9 the HPV antigens 6, 16, and 18 have been increased.
Gardasil Gardasil 9
How do the changes to the number and strength of the antigens affect the recipients of this new vaccine?
Increased amounts of the aluminium adjuvent
Gardasil 9 contains 500 mcg of aluminium per dose. This is more than double the amount of aluminium contained in a dose of Gardasil which has 225 mcg. It is alarming that this huge amount of aluminium is to be injected into young bodies. This is because aluminium causes the body to turn against itself. This is what we are seeing in many of the girls who have had their lives severely affected after their Gardasil shots.
One of the severe adverse events is premature ovarian failure in young teenage girls. POF occurs due to the destruction by aluminium of the maturation process of the eggs in the ovaries. Shockingly this condition is underreported at the present time because many girls are on the contraceptive pill but once they stop the damage will be obvious. This is very serious, more infertility and loads of heartache to follow.
Disturbingly the aluminium adjuvant in these vaccines does not require clinical approval. Gardasil and Gardasil 9 contain amorphous aluminium hydroxyphosphate sulphate (AAHS) a new form of aluminium which causes the immune system to become 104 times more powerfully stimulated than would occur naturally. It is important to be aware that this HPV vaccination program continues despite the fact that there is no scientific proof that the vaccines have ever prevented a single case of cervical cancer. And the adverse events continue to increase after administration of the HPV vaccines.
In FDA approved Gardasil 9: Malfeasance or Stupidity? researcher Norma Erickson has examined the Gardasil 9 package insert where she found that the rate of serious adverse events in the trials of Gardasil 9 was 2.3 %. This means that for every 100,000 people who are given Gardasil 9 there will be 2300 serious adverse events and yet the cervical cancer rate in the US is around 7 women per 100,000. Talk about insanity!
And that’s not all she found when she examined the insert package. During the trials 2.4% of the recipients developed an autoimmune disorder which means that 2400 people could now be suffering from new diseases just because they had this new Gardasil 9.
And there’s more to be learnt about the development of autoimmunity. Norma Erickson explains the process of molecular mimicry as it applies to Gardasil in a presentation Humphries/Erickson – What Biologically Plausible Mechanisms of Action are Health Agencies Ignoring? Within the many proteins found in our bodies there are 82 peptides. One of the antigens in Gardasil, the HPV 16 LI protein, almost identically matches 34 of these peptides. The importance of this information is as Erickson explains:
It is extremely possible that when you develop an antibody to the HPV 16 protein you are also developing an antibody reaction to your own system in multiple locations. The number of viral matches and locations makes the occurrence of autoimmune cross reactions in the human body following HPV 16 vaccination almost unavoidable.
We need to keep protesting the under-reported tragedy that is the theory and practice of vaccination. Our recent ancestors managed to live healthy lives without genetically engineering their food supply and over vaccinating their children.
Let’s turn this around.
Box Top$ For Education Is Not Supporting Education (Here’s Why)
- The Facts:
The Box Top$ For Education program has kicked off yet again with messaging to suggest it helps schools across the country. However, when you go beyond the surface it's far from what it seems and promotes itself as.
- Reflect On:
What labels and initiatives do you let impact your behavior as a consumer?
National Box Tops for Education Week kicks off coast-to-coast fundraising. For over 20 years, the Box Tops for Education program has provided families a way to help raise money for their school. The program was created to “help support education and benefit American schools” by providing a small amount of money from each item purchased. Does this program truly benefit education and support learning?
Who’s Really Benefitting?
General Mills, Inc., an American multi-billion-dollar multinational manufacturer, and marketer of branded consumer food is genuinely the benefactor. Giving a school 10 cents for every item bought is a drop in the bucket compared to the amount of money General Mills earns at the expense of our health. At first glance, it appears this company has been extremely generous, donating $719,000,000 in the last 20 years. If you do the math and divide each year’s totals by the 80,000 plus schools in the United States, it equates to a whopping $449 per school. As one can see, General Mills has done a fantastic marketing job, encouraging our kids to eat their garbage. Sure, we can buy school supplies, Kleenex tissues, and a few toxic cleaning products on the list, but what’s the fun in that.
Crappy, Overly-Processed “Food-Like” Products Do Not Support Learning
Diet and nutrition deeply affect a child’s learning ability. Sadly the qualifying products on the Box Top list including Hamburger Helper, Lucky Charms, Pillsbury Toaster Strudel, Fruit Roll-Ups, and alike do not achieve this.
Did You Know? The ingredient list for strawberry fruit roll-ups doesn’t include strawberries!
Instead, it contains genetically modified corn syrup and dextrose (refined sugar derived from GM corn, and artificial food dyes – red 40, yellow 5&6, blue 1 (derived from coal tar and petroleum).
Nutrient-rich homemade meals are being replaced with boxed, frozen, and canned foods due to higher prices of healthy food, our hectic lifestyles, and brainwashing tactics, such TV ads and campaigns such as the Box Top program.
Processed food lacks essential whole food nutrients the brain needs to function correctly. They contain ingredients such as genetically modified corn syrup, refined sugar, synthetic salt, unhealthy fats, artificial colors and flavors, chemical preservatives, and unrevealed heavy metals and pesticides. All of these ingredients work against a child’s ability to learn.
Pesticides and antibiotics found in food today are detrimental to our healthy gut microbiota which are essential to brain function and development. Both are designed to kill bugs. So, we are destroying our gut bugs that help regulate and keep our immune systems strong and healthy to support our brain.
Studies have also shown that the high sugar content of processed foods may contribute to diabetes, which can affect a student’s learning in many ways. Blood sugar levels can affect cognitive functioning and school performance. According to many scientific journals and newsletters from prestigious universities like Harvard Medical School, processed food consumption are also linked to neurodevelopmental disorders, sleep problems, hyperactivity, attention; and mood symptoms including depression and anxiety.
Boxed foods are also linked to other severe health issues like obesity and high blood pressure. Two extensive European studies published by BMJ in May 2019 links processed foods with a range of health risks, including cardiovascular death. Another scientific study conducted by scientists from Yale University in the U.S. and the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg in Germany indicated that “excess refined salt used in fast-food restaurants and the over-consumption of sodium from other processed foods may be one of the environmental factors driving the increased incidence of autoimmune diseases.” Processed foods can also trigger cancer. The researchers warn that the rapidly increasing consumption of ultra-processed foods “may drive an increasing burden of cancer in the next decades.”
Don’t Be A Victim To The Marketing Ploy
We are poisoning ourselves, and the consequences are starting to show with the incredible rise of neurodevelopmental, mental illness, and diseases like cancer, asthma, diabetes, and many autoimmune disorders. So, let’s forgo the Box Top’s and find healthier and more productive ways to raise money for our schools. These big ag companies have no interest in changing current practices no matter how sick they’re making all of us. Or how many medications we are all dependent on. These companies are generating trillions of dollars of their products, and creating customers for life. General Mills and most food companies are owned by Monsanto/Bayer. They are adhering to FDA guidelines and are not violating any federal laws because they fund the FDA (Industry User Fees).
Fighting big lobbyist groups can seem like an impossibility for most of us, so we need to take our power back by voting with our dollar. We must refuse to purchase products with barcodes that are making 10 cents for our schools. And choose healthy instead.
Looking to help your family overcome ADHD, autism, anxiety and more without medication? Get access to download my FREE eBook ‘Every Parent’s Starter Kit to a Healthy Family’ by signing up HERE.
Why Vegan and not Vegetarian? Vietnamese Monk Thich Nhat Hanh Answers The Question
- The Facts:
Vietnamese Monk Thich Nhat Hanh explains why he chooses not to consume any meat or dairy products, and points towards the overwhelmingly cruel food industry.
- Reflect On:
What gives us the right to torture animals, steal their babies, abuse them simply for our consumption? Where is our compassion, morality and empathy? Have we been made and brainwashed to believe that it's ok?
The most heartbreaking thing to see and to witness is an innocent benevolent being getting tortured and suffering. This is the realty of eating animal products today. Billions of animals are raised for slaughter every single year, and the overwhelmingly large majority of them go through horrific and terrifying experiences. It’s hard to imagine how anybody could eat or wear the clothes of diseased animals knowing what they went through. It’s also hard to believe that anybody who does eat or purchase products that have used animals in their manufacturing process would do that kind of “labour” themselves.
The truth is that many people still don’t know what these beings are going through. It’s absolutely heartbreaking, immoral, and unethical. Morality, empathy, and love are all emotions that need to return to planet Earth, and as long as we have multiple industries exploiting animals, that can’t happen.
If you’re unaware of what these animals are going through on a daily basis, a recent PETA investigation on two of the world’s top cashmere exporters revealed extreme cruelty, including the violent killing of cashmere goats. You can read more about it and see some footage of that here, if you’re interested.
You can view more examples of graphic footage in the trailer of “The Buddha Bowl,” a documentary in the making featuring personalities and some of the most influential and renowned spiritual leaders from all over the world sharing their perspectives on veganism. These include viewpoints from Buddha himself and from spiritual leaders from the past and present, totalling about 30 interviews on animal rights, environmental issues and health.
One of the people in that documentary is Thich Nhat Hanh, a Vietnamese Buddhist monk who is recognized as a global spiritual leader, poet and peace activist. The video below is not part of the documentary listed above, but from an interview taken a few years ago at a conference.
Are We Even Designed To Eat Meat?
There is no doubt our world is becoming more awake, aware, and compassionate. Millions of people around the world have transitioned towards a plant-based diet. This represents the kind of compassion and empathy our world needs more of, and this diet can do nothing but benefit human health, the planet, and the animals.
It’s no secret that eating meat and animal products is destroying the Earth, as clearing land for animal grazing and slaughter is one of the leading causes of deforestation, and factory farms are an environmental disaster.
More people are also starting to become aware of plant-based diets and their health benefits.
A recent study conducted by researchers in California and France found that meat protein is associated with a very sharp increased risk of heart disease, while protein from nuts and seeds is actually beneficial for the human heart. The study is titled “Patterns of plant and animal protein intake are strongly associated with cardiovascular mortality: The Adventist Health Study-2 cohort,”
It’s one of many studies that’ve emerged over the years showing the benefits of plant-based diets and their ability to reverse diseases. On the other hand, many studies published have shown how the consumption of meat has the exact opposite effect.
Below is a clip from a recent CETV episode where CE founder Joe Martino and I go into the discussion a little deeper, with a specific focus on plant-based protein compared to meat protein. If interested, you can watch the full episode here by signing up for your free trial. CETV is a platform that we created to combat the censorship we’ve experienced over the past couple of years.
I also go into this type of discussion, if you’re interested in reading about it, in an article I recently published: “Another Study Suggests Humans Are Not Designed To Eat Meat.”
Human beings are born with compassion and empathy. What we are doing to animals on our planet today, and how many continue to ignore it and be unaffected by it, is simply as a result of mass brainwashing and marketing by big food corporations. The truth is that we’ve been taught to ignore it, we’ve been taught to believe that it’s OK and it’s our right to do this to others who share the planet with us. No child would ever stand for such a thing unless they were taught to do so. It’s the same thing as racism, we are not born with it, we are taught it. I urge all those who are reading this to do their research into where the vast majority of our food and clothes are coming from, watch what these animals are going through, look into their eyes and and feel what they are feeling.
The ability to feel and understand the emotions of others, animal or human, is a HUGE and VITAL step towards creating a better world and a better overall human experience.
Food Brands Owned By Monsanto
- The Facts:
Below is a list of food brands currently owned by Monsanto. The list was put out by Vocal Media.
- Reflect On:
Are the foods we eat safe? Are the chemicals we eat ingest with them safe? A lot of science has shown otherwise, so what's really going on here.
Monsanto is a biotech corporation that was founded in the early 1900s. They produce genetically modified foods (GMOs) and many chemicals that are sprayed onto our food, including several pesticides. A recent study published in the journal Environmental Research titled, “Organic diet intervention significantly reduces urinary pesticide levels in U.S. children and adults” outlined the issue with these chemicals, many of which were actually originally designed by Monsanto as warfare weapons to be used as nerve agents.
The study highlighted that diet is the primary source of pesticide exposure in both children and adults. It found that an organic diet significantly reduced neonicotinoid, OP pyrethroid, 2,4-D exposure, with the greatest reduction observed in malathion, clothianidin, and chlorpyrifos.
The researchers noted that all of us are exposed “to a cocktail of toxic synthetic pesticides linked to a range of health problems from our daily diets.” They explained how “certified organic food is produced without these pesticides,” and attempted to answer the question, “Can eating organic really reduce levels of pesticides in our bodies?”
They tested four American families who typically don’t eat organic food to find out.
First, we tested the levels of pesticides in their bodies on a non-organic diet for six days. We found 14 chemicals representing potential exposure to 40 different pesticides in every study participant. These included organophosphates, pyrethroids, neonicotinoids and the phenoxy herbicide 2,4-D. Some of the pesticides we found are linked to increased risk of cancer, infertility, learning disabilities, Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s and more. (source)
This is one of multiple studies that’ve shown the benefits of switching to an organic diet.
When it comes to GMOs, there is a wealth of information that shows corruption with regard to their approval. A great resource to learn more about that is called Altered Genes, Twisted Truth: How the Venture to Genetically Engineer Our Food Has Subverte.
The stranglehold that corporations like Monsanto have on governments and government agencies like the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is quite strong. Many senior CDC scientists actually stressed this, but there are several other examples of this type of corruption.
For example, glyphosate, an active ingredient in Monsanto’s Roundup herbicide, was recently re-licensed and approved by European Parliament. However, MEPs found the science given to them was plagiarized, full of industry science written by Monsanto. You can read more about that here.
Glyphosate has been implicated in thousands of cancer cases, and Monsanto has already paid out billions of dollars to multiple victims. Dewayne Johnson is one of multiple examples.
Many mainstream foods were also found to be contaminated with glyphosate. Here’s a list of children’s foods that’ve been contaminated.
Monsanto was recently acquired by Bayer Pharmaceuticals. Big food and big pharma are one in the same. They own the press, they own politicians, and they practically dictate government policy. There are a multitude of examples that illustrate the massive amount of corruption that drives these corporations, yet they are still operating despite the fact that the products they offer have been proven to be extremely damaging to human health as well as the environment.
Those of you who have been involved in the past in the battle to protect our children from poorly made vaccines or toxic chemicals in our food or in our water know the power of these industries and how they’ve undermined every institution in our democracy that is supposed to protect little children from powerful, greedy corporations. Even the pharmaceutical companies have been able to purchase congress. They’re the largest lobbying entity in Washington D.C.. They have more lobbyists in Washington D.C. than there are congressman and senators combined. They give twice to congress what the next largest lobbying entity is, which is oil and gas… Imagine the power they exercise over both republicans and democrats. They’ve captured them (our regulatory agencies) and turned them into sock puppets. They’ve compromised the press… and they destroy the publications that publish real science. – Robert F. Kennedy (source)
Today, annual protests are held against the agrochemical company to demonstrate the public’s displeasure with Monsanto’s practices. Not only do the protests illustrate how many people are against genetically modified organisms, but they also represent how many people are against the dangerous pesticides Monsanto produces to kill off pests and insects.
Here are some of the brands that Monsanto works with.
This list was recently put out by Vocal Media.
- Aunt Jemima
- Aurora Foods
- Best Foods
- Betty Crocker
- Capri Sun
- Chef Boyardee
- Coca Cola
- Delicious Brand Cookies
- Duncan Hines
- Famous Amos
- Frito Lay
- General Mills
- Green Giant
- Healthy Choice
- Hershey’s Nestle
- Hungry Jack
- Interstate Bakeries
- KC Masterpiece
- Keebler/Flowers Industries
- Kid Cuisine
- Kraft/Phillip Morris
- Lean Cuisine
- Loma Linda
- Marie Callenders
- Minute Maid
- Nature Valley
- Ocean Spray
- Orville Redenbacher
- Pasta- Roni
- Pepperidge Farms
- Pop Secret
- Post Cereals
- Power Bar Brand
- Prego Pasta Sauce
- Procter and Gamble
- Ragu Sauce
- Smart Ones
- Tombstone Pizza
- Uncle Ben’s
At the end of the day, despite the massive amount of corruption and illegal activities these companies have engaged in, we are the ones buying their products and consuming their foods. All we have to do is make better choices–we can switch to organic produce, we can do our research and purchase from ethical companies, and we can refuse to spray our lawns with herbicides. Vote with your dollar.
The Very Book The Government Does Not Want You To Read Just Went #1 In The World
George Orwell’s 1984 is a classic book depicting a populace ruled by a political regime that persecutes individualism and independent critical thinking...
Another Alleged Epstein & Prince Andrew Victim Comes Forward Implicating Joe Biden & “Many Others”
Members of the Awakening Community often wonder, aside from our personal work being done to look inside and heal, forgive,...