From the inception of mass vaccination, childhood vaccines have produced a raft of unintended consequences. One of the biggest problems—gaining steam over the past several decades—involves the vaccine-induced creation of brand-new risks and vulnerabilities that can be more serious than the condition a given vaccine might be intended to address.
The varicella (chickenpox) vaccine represents a case in point. Chickenpox, usually mild when experienced in childhood, was once a routine rite of passage. After the rollout of universal varicella vaccination, the incidence of chickenpox declined but observers began noticing a “’perverse’ boom” in shingles (also called herpes zoster). Chickenpox and shingles infections both stem from varicella zoster virus—and before the advent of the varicella vaccine, children infected with chickenpox helped boost adults’ immunity to shingles by inhibiting the latent virus’s reactivation. Chickenpox vaccination disrupted this intergenerational protective mechanism, not only eliminating regular boosting for adults but shifting downward the average age at which shingles occurs. In addition , because varicella vaccine-induced immunity decreases by 8% with each year since vaccination, previously vaccinated young adults are at increased risk for varicella outbreaks and potential complications later in life. In short, while the reduced circulation of wild chickenpox virus may spare some healthy children a benign case of chickenpox, children now face the more serious risk of developing shingles at young ages and chickenpox at older ages.
-->FREE Report: Discover the Top 10 Nutrient Deficiencies, including key signs you may be deficient in them and what you can do about it Click here to learn more!
… the incidence of shingles in the U.S. rose by 63% among 10- to 19-year-olds as of the mid-2000s.
Predictions and case reports
When the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) added first one and then two doses of chickenpox vaccine to the U.S. vaccine schedule (in 1996 and 2006, respectively), numerous scientists predicted—accurately as things have turned out—that there would be a chickenpox-shingles tradeoff. In fact, the United Kingdom does not include the varicella vaccine in its childhood schedule to this day precisely because researchers there recognized the potential for routine chickenpox vaccination to “drive up the age at which those who are non immune get the illness” and increase the incidence of shingles in all age groups. Confirming the initial predictions, the incidence of shingles in the U.S. rose by 63% among 10- to 19-year-olds as of the mid-2000s.
Ordinarily, clinicians do not expect to encounter shingles in children unless the children are seriously immunocompromised. Perhaps this is why—in one case report after another describing shingles in otherwise healthy vaccinated children—researchers characterize the situation as “rare” or “unique.” Even so, young shingles patients’ often dramatic clinical symptoms have forced researchers to acknowledge that shingles is definitely “possible” in children vaccinated against varicella, and when they use appropriate molecular analyses, they find that the vaccine-strain virus is the causative agent.
Across studies, the average age of shingles infection in children was 5.3 years, and the infection surfaced, on average, about three years after chickenpox vaccination.
In 2017, clinicians encountered shingles in a healthy 19-month-old who had received a chickenpox vaccine six months previously, and they decided to put their findings in context by searching the English-language literature for similar cases. They identified roughly two dozen published cases of vaccine-strain shingles in “immunocompetent” children and adolescents who had received a chickenpox vaccine but otherwise had “no history of varicella or exposure to varicella during gestation.” A number of the studies reported shingles in very young children—such as a 15-month-old vaccinated three months previously, a 2-year-old “vaccinated for varicella at 17 months,” another vaccinated 2-year-old, and a 3.5-year-old girl who had received the chickenpox vaccine around age 2. Across studies, the average age of shingles infection in children was 5.3 years, and the infection surfaced, on average, about three years after chickenpox vaccination.
Adverse events and complications
Young shingles patients experience a wide range of “rare but important adverse events.” Case reports have described:
- Lesions on the forehead, nasal bridge and upper and lower eyelids of a “previously healthy” 6-year-old boy who received the chickenpox vaccine at 1 year of age.
- Persistent shingles-related eye complications in a 6-year-old girl “with no medical history” who had been given two doses of chickenpox vaccine (at age 1 and again one year prior to the onset of symptoms).
- Headache, eye pain, eyelid rash and other symptoms in a 7-year-old boy who was “otherwise healthy and had received all of his scheduled vaccinations.”
- Ocular herpes zoster lesions and nerve palsy in an 8-year-old boy with “up-to-date immunizations” and an “unremarkable” medical history.
Unfortunately, shingles carries the risk of even more serious complications, including the vision-threatening eye condition called herpes zoster ophthalmicus—experienced by up to one in four persons with shingles. In a case series reporting shingles in seven “immunized healthy children without underlying immunodeficiency,” researchers described severe lesions as well as upper respiratory symptoms and joint pain. Other major complications that may occur either in tandem with rash or on their own include central nervous system problems such as encephalitis and meningitis. A 19-year-old female college student who had received two prior doses of varicella vaccine developed shingles-related encephalitis that landed her in intensive care and resulted in lengthy hospitalization. The strong antiviral drugs used to treat these conditions can cause kidney dysfunction. Mayo Clinic researchers report that asthma and atopic dermatitis both are associated with a higher risk of shingles.
At the same time, because the varicella vaccine is a live virus vaccine, people who get chickenpox vaccines can spread the vaccine-strain varicella-zoster-virus to others, a troublesome fact quietly acknowledged on the CDC’s website.
The “cost of success”?
Researchers at the University of British Columbia have suggested that vaccine-associated shingles complications are just “one of the costs” of the “success” achieved with universal chickenpox vaccination. However, given that one in five children who receives the varicella vaccine develops a “breakthrough” chickenpox infection anyway, just what kind of “success” are we talking about? In fact, “in communities with high vaccination coverage, varicella cases mostly occur in vaccinated individuals.” At the same time, because the varicella vaccine is a live virus vaccine, “[p]eople who get chickenpox vaccines can spread the vaccine-strain varicella-zoster-virus to others,” a troublesome fact quietly acknowledged on the CDC’s website. When those “others” are young adults or older, the cases not infrequently result in serious complications. Finally, it should be noted that, as is the case with nearly all vaccines on the market, the FDA approved varicella vaccines without any long-term safety testing—the vaccines received a scant 42 days at most of monitoring after a single dose of vaccine.
In 2010, CDC researchers identified yet another concern when they reported that their laboratory had observed—in about 11% of the adverse events resulting from varicella vaccination—“recombination between vaccine and wild-type [varicella zoster virus] strains.” Moreover, the “recombinants” demonstrated “a selective preference for reactivation, enhanced replication, and/or an enhanced ability to traverse the nerve.” The World Health Organization and other bodies have acknowledged that this type of vaccine-plus-wild-virus recombination raises “unique safety issues.” The CDC researchers noted that the shingles vaccines it now recommends for older adults (“formulated at a virus concentration more than 14-fold higher than that of childhood varicella vaccine”) are likely to “substantially” increase the occurrence of “vaccine-wild-type recombination.”
It is time to bring “unintended” consequences out into the open and make sure they factor into all assessments of vaccine safety and efficacy.
Chickenpox vaccines are far from the only type of vaccine to give rise to unintended consequences. In a recent commentary, a leading pertussis expert admitted, for instance, that pertussis vaccination actually increases vaccinated individuals’ lifetime susceptibility to pertussis. Merck’s highly flawed measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine (which relied on faked data to achieve Food and Drug Administration approval) has likewise backfired, prompting rampant fertility-threatening mumps outbreaks in young adults. It is time to bring “unintended” consequences out into the open and make sure they factor into all assessments of vaccine safety and efficacy.
“Wearing A Mask…Offers Little, If Any, Protection From Infection” – Harvard Doctors
- The Facts:
A study published in the New England Medical Journal outlines how it's already known that masks provide little to zero benefit when it comes to protection a public setting.
- Reflect On:
Should we have the freedom to wear masks? Why are so many things we are doing right now contrary to data and evidence? Are these measures helping us thrive, or are they totalitarian type measures?
What Happened: Is this fake news? No, it’s a quote directly from a paper published a couple of months ago in the New England Journal of Medicine by, Michael Klompas, M.D., M.P.H., Charles A. Morris, M.D., M.P.H., Julia Sinclair, M.B.A., Madelyn Pearson, D.N.P., R.N., and Erica S. Shenoy, M.D., Ph.D. Whether or not it’s may be up for debate, but one thing is for sure, the conversation shouldn’t be censored. According to the paper:
We know that wearing a mask outside health care facilities offers little, if any, protection from infection. Public health authorities define a significant exposure to Covid-19 as face-to-face contact within 6 feet with a patient with symptomatic Covid-19 that is sustained for at least a few minutes (and some say more than 10 minutes or even 30 minutes). The chance of catching Covid-19 from a passing interaction in a public space is therefore minimal. In many cases, the desire for widespread masking is a reflexive reaction to anxiety over the pandemic.
The calculus may be different, however, in health care settings. First and foremost, a mask is a core component of the personal protective equipment (PPE) clinicians need when caring for symptomatic patients with respiratory viral infections, in conjunction with gown, gloves, and eye protection. Masking in this context is already part of routine operations for most hospitals. What is less clear is whether a mask offers any further protection in health care settings in which the wearer has no direct interactions with symptomatic patients.
The study goes on to examine whether a mask alone is even an effective health-care measure, and discusses its capability alone devoid of other, what seem to be more important practices, like washing your hands. The point is, outside of a healthcare setting, where their usefulness is still questionable, they provide no clear protection from Covid-19, so why are they being mandated like they are? Instead of a mandate, should the citizenry simply be encouraged to wear masks, with the government explaining the science and still giving people a choice? Why are they saying it’s to protect other people when there is no evidence that it actually does that?
What’s interesting about this particular study is that it’s one of multiple that mention how masks are more of a symbolic representation. As mentioned above, the paper states that “in many cases, the desire for widespread masking is a reflexive reaction to anxiety over the pandemic.” Again, the study is an examination of the validity of masks in a health care setting (which is also questionable) with regards to the new coronavirus, and clearly states that it’s already known that they offer almost zero protection in a public setting.
It is also clear that masks serve symbolic roles. Masks are not only tools, they are also talismans that may help increase health care workers’ perceived sense of safety, well-being, and trust in their hospitals. Although such reactions may not be strictly logical, we are all subject to fear and anxiety, especially during times of crisis. One might argue that fear and anxiety are better countered with data and education than with a marginally beneficial mask, particularly in light of the worldwide mask shortage, but it is difficult to get clinicians to hear this message in the heat of the current crisis. Expanded masking protocols’ greatest contribution may be to reduce the transmission of anxiety, over and above whatever role they may play in reducing transmission of Covid-19.
The study provides other justifications for masks, but the prevention of Covid-19 is not one of them.
Below is a quote from a very interesting paper published in 2016, titled “The Surgical Mask Is A Bad Fit For Risk Reduction.”
As represented by our cinema and other media, Western society expects too much of masks. In the public’s mind, the still-legitimate use of masks for source control has gone off-label; masks are thought to prevent infection. From here, another problem arises: because surgical masks are thought to protect against infection in the community setting, people wearing masks for legitimate purposes (those who have a cough in a hospital, say) form part of the larger misperception and act to reinforce it. Even this proper use of surgical masks is incorporated into a larger improper use in the era of pandemic fear, especially in Asia, where such fear is high. The widespread misconception about the use of surgical masks — that wearing a mask protects against the transmission of virus — is a problem of the kind theorized by German sociologist Ulrich Beck.
The birth of the mask came from the realization that surgical wounds need protection from the droplets released in the breath of surgeons. The technology was applied outside the operating room in an effort to control the spread of infectious epidemics. In the 1919 influenza pandemic, masks were available and were dispensed to populations, but they had no impact on the epidemic curve. At the time, it was unknown that the influenza organism is nanoscopic and can theoretically penetrate the surgical mask barrier. As recently as 2010, the US National Academy of Sciences declared that, in the community setting, “face masks are not designed or certified to protect the wearer from exposure to respiratory hazards.” A number of studies have shown the inefficacy of the surgical mask in household settings to prevent transmission of the influenza virus…
A study published in 2015 found that cloth masks can increase healthcare workers risk of infection. It also called into question the efficacy of medical masks. You can read more about that and access it here.
The physiological effects of breathing elevated inhaled CO2 may include changes in visual performance, modified exercise endurance, headaches and dyspnea. The psychological effects include decreased reasoning and alertness, increased irritability, severe dyspnea, headache, dizziness, perspiration, and short-term memory loss. (source)
There are studies out there that also suggest that wearing masks can indeed help prevent Covid-19, especially in an acute care setting, it’s just that we are hearing so much of it that we forget to examine the science on the other side of the coin.
The list goes on, these are just a few examples.
The next important question to ask ourselves is, are health authorities making this pandemic out to be more serious than it actually is? Many scientists and epidemiologists from around the world have expressed this belief, and many of them, as a result, have been censored by social media platforms. Why is there an authoritarian “fact-checker” going around censoring information, evidence, and opinions being presented by some of the worlds leading scientists in this area simply because it opposes the narrative given to us by organizations like The World Health Organization? (WHO)
Are masks being used to prolong fear and hysteria?
John P. A. Ioannidis, a professor of medicine and epidemiology at Stanford University has said that the infection fatality rate is close to 0 percent for people under the age of 45 years old. Why are we taking such measures for a respiratory infection when tens of millions of people get infected and die from respiratory viruses every single year?
Why is there so much controversy surrounding the deaths? For example, in Toronto Canada, “Individuals who have died with COVID-19, but not as a result of COVID-19 are included in the case counts for COVID-19 deaths in Toronto.” (source)
Dr. Ngozi Ezike, Director of the Illinois Department of Public Health, recently stated that, even if it’s clear one died of an alternative cause, their death will still be marked as a COVID death.
The Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment announced a change to how it tallies coronavirus deaths amid complaints that it inflated numbers. This has been a common theme throughout the US as well as the World.
Vittorio Sgarbi, Italian politician Mayor of Sutri gave an emotional speech at a hearing on the 24th of April where he emphasized that the number of deaths in Italy due to COVID-19 are completely false and that the people are being lied to.
This isn’t even the tip of the ice-berg when it comes to manufactured deaths.
What’s really going on here? Is this actually about the pandemic, or was Edward Snowden right? That governments are using the new coronavirus to impose more authoritarian measures on the population, measures that will stick around long after the virus is gone? You can read more about his comments here.
Was Dr. Ron Paul correct when he said that this virus is less dangerous than it’s being made out to be? And that people will profit both politically and financially from this in the form of more of our basic rights being taken away? Is this simply being used like the justification for mass surveillance was used? To protect the population, or is it for, as NSA whistle-blower William Binney says, “total population control?” You can read more about his comments here.
It’s quite clear that a large portion of the population doesn’t agree with various medical mandates, and wearing masks is one of those mandates. The reason is justified, and that’s simply because there is no evidence that they can protect the general public, and depending on the material, in some cases it can be harmful. I find it hard to believe that someone would have an issue with someone else not wanting to breathe in their own carbon monoxide, but I also understand that many peoples perception with regards to this pandemic has been severely manipulated.
On the flip side, due to so many instances where things don’t make sense, this pandemic is contributing to another large amount of people questioning what we are being told and being forced to do by our government, this is causing a deep awakening of the masses. Perhaps this is the larger reason it’s playing out from a collective consciousness perspective.
At the end of the day, more measures are continually pushed upon the population without their consent. We don’t have to continue to obey, continue to elect, and help maintain a system that is clearly not serving us to thrive.
The Physicians For Informed Consent Ask If The MMR Vaccine Is More Dangerous Than The Measles
What Happened: The Physicians for Informed Consent (PIC) are a group of doctors and scientists from around the world who have come together to support informed consent when it comes to mandatory vaccine measures. Their information is based on science. Their mission is to deliver data on infectious diseases and vaccines, and to unite doctors, scientists, healthcare professionals, attorneys, and families who support voluntary vaccinations. Their vision is that doctors and the public are able to evaluate the data on infectious diseases and vaccines objectively and voluntarily engage in informed decision-making about vaccination.
You can check out their directors, advisors, and founding members here.
The organization itself is much bigger than the founding members, and includes a coalition of organizations, doctors and scientists.
On their website, they’ve put out some excellent downloadable PDF’s with regards to the MMR vaccine. There are four of them that all present different points.
- MEASLES: What Parents Need To Know
- MMR VACCINE: Is It Safer Than Measles?
- Waning Immunity & The MMR Vaccine
- FAQ’s: The MMR Vaccine versus the Measles
One of them deals with “what parents need to know about the measles vaccine” and another one presents the information that has them questioning if the MMR vaccine is safer than the measles. They point out that the chances of dying from measles and make many comparisons to the vaccine.
According to a MedAlerts search of the FDA Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) database, as of 2/5/19, the cumulative raw count of adverse events from measles, mumps, and rubella vaccines alone was: 93,929 adverse events, 1,810 disabilities, 6,902 hospitalizations, and 463 deaths. The National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act has paid out approximately $4 billion to compensate families of vaccine-injured children. As astronomical as the monetary awards are, they’re even more alarming considering HHS claims that only an estimated 1% of vaccine injuries are even reported to the Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS).
The PDF’s are well-sourced and laid out in an easy to read and understand type of manner, and quite detailed. Their arguments are quite compelling, and it would be interesting to present this information to a physician on the opposite end of the spectrum in order to hear or read their rebuttal. So feel free to take a look at them if interested!
Why This Is Important: When it comes to both our individual and collective health, all of us simply want what’s best. Nobody can really deny that, especially for our children. The issue is, many people have been made to believe that vaccines are for the greater good of everybody. We are made to believe that children, for example, who are not vaccinated are actually a danger to the vaccinated children.
The Physicians for Informed Consent are well aware of this argument, and they present a lot of information on why that’s not true. At the end of the day, in order to produce “herd immunity” from vaccines, the vaccines must be 100 percent effective for everybody, all of the time. We already know that that’s not the case and that a large majority are susceptible to vaccine injury. The National Childhood Vaccine Injury act alone is enough to argue against mandatory vaccination and the idea that the unvaccinated are a risk to the vaccinated. In fact, vaccines have been known to spread diseases. This has happened with polio as well as the measles.
For example, during the measles outbreak in California in 2015, a large number of suspected cases occurred in recent vaccinees. Of the 194 measles virus sequences obtained in the United States in 2015, 73 were identified as vaccine sequences. The media (Pharma-owned) generated high public anxiety. This fear-mongering led to the demonization of unvaccinated children, who were perceived as the spreaders of this disease. Rebecca J. McNall, a co-author of the published report, is a CDC official in the Division of Viral Diseases who had the data proving that the measles outbreak was in part caused by the vaccine. It is evidence of the vaccine’s failure to provide immunity. (source)
There are actually decades of examples when it comes to the measles.
Vaccinations are quite a controversial topic, and vaccine hesitancy continues to increase among not only the global citizenry, but among doctors and physicians as well, which was also expressed at the recent World Health Organization vaccine summit. You can read more about that here.
In today’s day and age, it’s important to ask ourselves if measures taken under the guise of goodwill are really necessary and good for us. Take terrorism, for example, the idea that those who fund the problem, arm the problem, and in some cases create the problem then propose the solution of foreign infiltration, again, under the guise of goodwill.
So what were the real intentions, to stop the terrorists or to take over the country for natural resources and economic power and control?
Are people capitalizing off of the coronavirus? Not just for profit but for control, like Edward Snowden mentioned?
It’s also important to note that pharmaceutical companies hold tremendous lobbying power, even more so than big oil. (source)
Ask yourself, should we not have the right to decide for ourselves what goes into our body? Especially when there is a tremendous amount of flawed logic with the idea of mass vaccinations? Should we not have access to appropriate double blind placebo controlled safety studies? How come there are none for vaccines?
Why are there massive ridicule campaigns against organizations, professionals and people who create awareness about vaccine safety? Is vaccine safety not in the best interests of everybody? Should we not be analyzing and questioning instead of simply believing?
We must ask ourselves if we want to continue to give our consciousness and perceptions about certain medications over to these global and federal health authorities or, is it time to start asking more questions and pointing out facts that don’t really resonate? Why is discussion being discouraged, censored and even punished?
Why is Julian Assange in Jail? Why do we jail those who expose crimes and identify with those who commit them?
At the end of the day, vaccines are not a one size fits all product, and that’s quite clear. There are risks associated with vaccines, and evidence suggests that they are nowhere near as rare as they’re made out to be.
If we can come together as billions and shut down for the coronavirus, imagine what we could do if we come together to oppose measures that we as a citizenry, and as an entire collective, do not desire.
Soft Drink Companies Caught Using Big Tobacco’s Playbook To Lure Young Children
- The Facts:
Documents obtained by researchers clearly outline the unethical and immoral actions Tobacco companies used to 'hook' kids onto sugary drinks. They use the same tactics they did for smoking.
- Reflect On:
Why do and have our federal health regulatory agencies allow such products to be approved as safe for consumption when they are clearly linked to a variety of diseases, like cancer?
Many moves made by multiple big corporations are extremely unethical, immoral, and downright shocking. These corporations have completely compromised our federal health regulatory agencies, and it’s quite clear that they do not care about the health of the human race and will do anything when it comes to the success of the products they manufacture, including taking illegal and/or immoral actions.
One of the more recent examples comes from the tobacco industry. Companies within the industry used colors, flavors, and marketing techniques to lure and entice children as potential future smokers. They actually used and applied these same strategies to sweetened beverages starting as early as 1963, according to a study conducted by researchers at UC San Francisco.
As the Sugar Scientists point out:
The study, which draws from a cache of previously secret documents from the tobacco industry that is part of the UCSF Industry Documents Library tracked the acquisition and subsequent marketing campaigns of sweetened drink brands by two leading tobacco companies: R.J. Reynolds and Philip Morris. It found that as tobacco was facing increased scrutiny from health authorities, its executives transferred the same products and tactics to peddle soft drinks. The study was published in the March 2019 issue of BMJ.
“Executives in the two largest U.S.-based tobacco companies had developed colors and flavors as additives for cigarettes and used them to build major children’s beverage product lines, including Hawaiian Punch, Kool-Aid, Tang and Capri Sun,” said senior author Laura Schmidt, PhD, MSW, MPH, of the UCSF Philip R. Lee Institute for Health Policy Studies. “Even after the tobacco companies sold these brands to food and beverage corporations, many of the product lines and marketing techniques designed to attract kids are still in use today.” (source)
The new papers, which are available in the UCSF Truth Tobacco Industry Documents Library, a subset of the UCSF Industry Documents Library, reveal the close and tight knit relationships between the big tobacco and big food industries. In fact, in the 60s and 70s, these companies conducted taste tests with mothers and their children to evaluate sweetness, colors and flavors for Hawaiian Punch product line extensions. The children’s preferences were prioritized.
Kool-Aid Joins Marlboro
Meanwhile, tobacco competitor Philip Morris had acquired Kool-Aid, via General Foods, in 1985. The company flipped its marketing audience from families to children, created its “Kool-Aid Man” mascot, and launched collaborations with branded toys, including Barbie and Hot Wheels. It also developed a children’s Kool-Aid loyalty program described as “our version of the Marlboro Country Store,” a cigarette incentives program. (source)
“The Wacky Wild Kool-Aid style campaign had tremendous reach and impact,” said first author Kim Nguyen, ScD, MPH, who is also with the UCSF Philip R. Lee Institute for Health Policy Studies. “Lots of kids in the ’80s dreamed of getting swag from the Wacky Warehouse. What is really ‘wacky’ is that the Kool-Aid kid program was modeled after a tobacco marketing strategy designed to build allegiance with smokers.”
The tobacco giant also acquired Capri Sun and Tang, and used similar child-focused integrated marketing strategies to drive those sales.
“The industry claims that these tobacco-inspired marketing strategies are not actually targeting children and should be excluded from these industry-led agreements,” said Schmidt. “But the evidence cited in our research shows that these product lines and marketing techniques were specifically designed for and tested on children.” (source)
The UCSF Industry Documents Library was launched in 2002 as a digital portal for tobacco documents. Today, the library includes close to 15 million internal tobacco, drug, chemical and food industry documents used by scientists, policymakers, journalists and community members in their efforts to improve and protect the health of the public.
At the end of the day, it’s important to recognize that government health authorities and the corporations we buy our food from, among other things, really don’t care about us. This has become extremely evident, as they are responsible for the sharp rise in numerous diseases. It’s not uncommon to see parents buy their children products similar to the ones listed above, and that’s due to mass brainwashing and the fact that we’ve been made to feel that these products are actually safe. This is why awareness is so critical.
“Wearing A Mask…Offers Little, If Any, Protection From Infection” – Harvard Doctors
What Happened: Is this fake news? No, it’s a quote directly from a paper published a couple of months ago in...
Ex VP of Major Military Contractor DynCorp & Sr. Pentagon Official Guilty For Child Sex Abuse
DynCorp has been implicated in trafficking children all over the world, why have they not been properly investigated? What Happened:...