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Is Male Circumcision A Violation of Human Rights?

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While flipping through the WestJet TV lineup on a recent cross-country flight, I reluctantly settled for a popular daytime talk-show (my other options included Days of Our Lives and re-runs of Here Comes Honey Boo Boo), which saw a panel of 4 diversely opinionated women duking it out to see who could make their co-host seem like the biggest idiot. Sigh.

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More interesting, however, was the subject they were debating about: male circumcision.

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Two of the female hosts in particular were taking the stage with polarizing views. One host saw the medical procedure as a hygienic practice that lowered the risk of disease while the other saw it as an archaic and highly irrelevant surgery.

In the end, the victor was left undecided. I, however, was left with an ignited curiosity about a medical procedure that I had never really taken time to question.

I was impressed by the research the anti-circumcision host had prepared for her debate, and it got me thinking intently about the ethics behind the globally rooted practice.

How Did Circumcision Come To Be Globally Recognized?

Ancient Medieval era circumcision Italy. Source: Wikimedia

Ancient Medieval era circumcision Italy.
Source: Wikimedia

While the true origins of circumcision are largely obscured, the procedure undoubtedly has ancient roots, as documented in findings from several ethnic groups, including ancient Egypt, Greece, and Sub-equatorial Africa.

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It has been proposed that the procedure began for a number of reasons, including serving as a rite of passage marking a boy’s entrance into adulthood or as a form of sympathetic magic to ensure virility or fertility. It could also have been started as a means of reducing sexual pleasure, marking those of higher social status, aiding hygiene where regular bathing was impractical, or even humiliating enemies and slaves by symbolic castration.

By the 1890s, it became a popular technique to prevent, or cure, masturbatory insanity.

Sadly, female circumcision is still practiced in certain areas of the world today, although efforts are being made to put a stop to it.

Female circumcision is still practiced in certain areas of the world today, although efforts are being made to put a stop to it.

Clitoridectomies (removal of the clitoris) were also performed for the same reason, and were widely practiced in the US until 1925. This of course was until someone recognized the absurdity of such an invasive and irrelevant medical procedure.

Yet even still, male circumcision continued onwards unto further generations of men.

Today, the World Health Organization (WHO) has estimated that globally one-third of males aged 15 years and over are circumcised, with almost 70% of those being Muslims.

To Cut Or Not To Cut

Circumcision is a massive industry, costing upwards to billions of dollars annually.

Surprisingly, even though circumcision is still performed by most surgeons today, many leading medical institutions show no favour towards the procedure.

Take the New England Journal of Medicine, for example:

Failure to provide adequate control of pain amounts to substandard and unethical medical practice.

The American Academy of Pediatrics Policy Statement on circumcision:

Existing scientific evidence demonstrates potential medical benefits of newborn male circumcision; however, this data is not sufficient to recommend routine neonatal circumcision.  (AAP 1999)

The British Medical Association:

[P]arental preference alone is not sufficient justification for performing a surgical procedure on a child. (BMA 2006)

Even the Canadian Paediatric Society has its reservations:

Circumcision of newborns should not be routinely performed.  (CPS 1996)

Perhaps the reason most medical institutions show no favor towards circumcision has something to do with one of medicine’s first code of ethics, “First, do no harm.”

Removing a normal, healthy body part and causing unnecessary pain is in fact doing harm.

 “But the pain only lasts for a minute…”

We know that a baby has nerve endings in their genitals at birth, therefore surgically cutting a newborn’s penis undoubtedly causes extreme pain for the baby. Even if it were only for a ‘minute’ (which it’s not), such an argument also implies it is okay to inflict unnecessary pain on an infant, even if only temporarily.

Furthermore, circumcision without anesthesia is inconsistent with ethical guidelines that prohibit performing surgical procedures on live beings without anesthesia.

Money, Autonomy, and Misguided Parental Decisions

Circumcision is a massive industry, costing upwards to billions of dollars annually.

Circumcision is a massive industry, costing upwards to billions of dollars annually.

In her article, “Circumcision Ethics and Economics,” author Darcia Narvaez states that her anti-circumcision stance comes down to money, autonomy, and parental intentions.

For one, Narvaez explains how much money we actually waste on the procedure.

Medicaid spends $198 million each year on routine infant circumcision in the 33 states that still pay for it, a procedure its own guidelines consider to be medically unnecessary. Private insurance programs are reimbursing an additional $677 million, raising prices for us all (Craig 2006.)  In addition to the cost of circumcision itself, correcting its complications are said to double the cost, bringing the total bill to $1.75 billion each year. Is this what we should be spending money on during a recession and at a time when healthcare costs are skyrocketing?

Complications indeed, not to mention the average 117 neonatal circumcision-related deaths (9.01/100,000) which occur annually in the United States.

Secondly, Narvaez points out that everyone has a right to bodily autonomy and self-determination, and that the only person qualified to make the medical decision is “the owner of the penis, as he is the one going to have to live with the results, not his parents.”

Another valid point brought up by Narvaez comes down to the fact that parents’ “aesthetic preferences are not valid reasons for circumcision.”

While all of her points speak truth in some regard, there are arguments for circumcision that should also be looked at.

Risk of Disease?

The most common arguments for circumcision comes down to hygiene and risk of disease. Increased risk of spreading and contracting HPV, cervical cancer, and HIV are the big ones most commonly mentioned.

However, when one actually takes the time to look at the studies which suggest this correlation, it’s extremely easy to see how weak that correlation is (fortunately).

A 2002 paper in the New England Journal of Medicine studied men in Europe, Asia, and Latin America, and found that circumcision was correlated with a decreased risk of penile HPV infection (this correlation is corroborated by a 2009 study in African men), but that there was not a significant correlation between circumcision and incidence of cervical cancer.

Does circumcision truly reduce the chances of HPV and HIV? Is there enough correlation to draw conclusions?

Does circumcision truly reduce the chances of contracting or spreading HPV and HIV? Is there enough correlation to draw conclusions?

When they restricted their dataset to women with only one sexual partner, there was an increased risk of cervical cancer in women whose partners were uncircumcised only if their partner was already considered at high risk for contracting HPV (as determined by age at first intercourse, number of sexual partners, and sex with prostitutes). So, in men who already engage in risky sexual behavior, circumcision does offer an advantage for protecting their partners from cervical cancer.

Yes, circumcision reduces the mucosal surface area, thereby potentially minimizing the interface for abrasion and transmission of viruses, but again, this is a weak reason for surgical intervention.

Women also have many crevices and folds in their genitals, yet we don’t automatically assume to surgically remove their labia for hygienic purposes.

It’s called showering.

Facing Reality

Routine infant circumcision is a 90-year aberration among hundreds of thousands of years of our time here as homo-sapiens.

Furthermore, manmade traditions have never been the basis for scientific principles, so why have we chosen to hold on to such an archaic way of thinking with regards to circumcision?

Thankfully, these traditions are on their way out soon, with only 30% of American boys circumcised in 2009. It seems that more and more parents are seeing through the silly traditions of our past while looking to create a more reasonable future for us all.

Perhaps one day we will look back at a list of all the strange things we once accepted as normal and laugh, with circumcision topping the list of these absurdities.

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Consciousness

New Study Finds Humans Can Access a Higher Level of Consciousness

Gautam Peddada

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Photo By Zelenov Iurii

In Brief

  • The Facts:

    A new study sheds light on the existence of a higher level of consciousness in humans that is accessible.

  • Reflect On:

    Does consciousness originate in the brain or somewhere else? What does this say about who 'we' are as humans?

Before you begin...

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New research has discovered verifiable evidence of a higher level of consciousness. Researchers used brain imaging equipment to analyze the small magnetic fields created in the brain and discovered that, across three psychedelic substances, one measure of conscious level — neural signal diversity — was consistently greater.

Neuroscientists discovered a prolonged increase in neural signal diversity — a measure of the complexity of brain activity — in persons under the influence of psychedelic substances as compared to when they were awake.

The variety of brain impulses gives a mathematical indicator of awareness degree. People who are awake, for example, have more diversified brain activity than those who are asleep, according to this measure.

However, this is the first study to show that brain-signal diversity is more than baseline, that is, greater than in someone who is merely ‘awake and aware.’ Previous research has focused on decreased states of awareness, such as sleep, anesthesia, or the so-called vegetative state. More research utilizing complex and diverse models is required, according to the researchers, who are cautiously hopeful.

Professor Anil Seth, Co-Director of the University of Sussex’s Sackler Centre for Consciousness Science, stated:

“This discovery demonstrates that the brain on psychedelics functions quite differently than usual.”

“As evaluated by ‘global signal diversity,’ the electrical activity of the brain during the psychedelic experience is less predictable and less ‘integrated’ than during regular conscious wakefulness.”

“Since this measure has already shown its value as a measure of ‘conscious level’, we can say that the psychedelic state appears as a higher ‘level’ of consciousness than normal — but only with respect to this specific mathematical measure.”

For the study, Michael Schartner, Adam Barrett, and Professor Seth of the Sackler Centre reanalyzed data that had previously been collected by Imperial College London and the University of Cardiff in which healthy volunteers were given one of three drugs known to induce a psychedelic state: psilocybin, ketamine, and LSD.

Using brain imaging equipment, scientists examined the small magnetic fields created in the brain and discovered that, across all three medicines, this measure of conscious level — neural signal diversity — was consistently greater.

The researchers emphasize that this does not imply that the psychedelic state is a “better” or “more desirable” state of consciousness; rather, it demonstrates that the psychedelic brain state is distinct and can be related to other global changes in conscious level (e.g., sleep, anesthesia) by using a simple mathematical measure of signal diversity.

“That identical improvement in signal diversity was discovered for all three medications, despite their rather distinct pharmacology, are both quite remarkable and also encouraging that the results are robust and reproducible,” said Dr. Muthukumaraswamy, who was involved in all three original research.

The findings might help feed ongoing conversations concerning the strictly supervised medical usage of such medications, such as in the treatment of severe depression.

“Rigorous research into psychedelics is garnering greater interest, not least because of the therapeutic potential that these substances may have when taken wisely and under medical supervision,” said Dr. Robin Cahart-Harris of Imperial College London.

“The current study’s findings assist us to comprehend what happens in people’s brains when they experience psychedelic consciousness expansion. People frequently report having “insight” when using these substances, and when this occurs in a therapeutic setting, it can predict beneficial outcomes. The current discoveries may help us understand how this is possible.”

In addition to informing potential medical applications, the study contributes to developing scientific knowledge of how conscious level (how conscious one is) and conscious content (what one is conscious of) are connected.

According to Professor Seth:

“We discovered links between the intensity of subjects’ psychedelic experiences and variations in signal diversity. This shows that our metric is closely related not just to global brain alterations caused by medicines, but also to features of brain dynamics that underpin specific kinds of conscious experience.”

The study team is currently concentrating their efforts on determining how particular alterations in information flow in the brain underpin certain components of the psychedelic experience, such as hallucinations.

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Consciousness

Does Consciousness Create Our Material Reality?

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CE Staff Writer 7 minute read

In Brief

  • The Facts:

    A new study authored by Robert Lanza suggests observers" are responsible for determining physical reality, and that conscious observers themselves generate and create the structures of time and space.

  • Reflect On:

    We observers, people like you and I, are responsible for how consciousness forms into physical matter, what does this say about the power of our individual and collective beliefs?

Before you begin...

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Take a moment and breathe. Place your hand over your chest area, near your heart. Breathe slowly into the area for about a minute, focusing on a sense of ease entering your mind and body. Click here to learn why we suggest this.

Where does the “physical” world come from? Matter at its smallest observable form, atoms, pop in and out of existence all the time. The idea that physical matter is birthed from a non physical realm, such as the “quantum vacuum” or the “void”, or something else we are unaware of is not novel.  Nikola Tesla himself believed that “all perceptible matter comes from a primary substance, or tenuity beyond conception, filling all space, the akasha, or luminiferous ether, which is acted upon by the life-giving Prana or creative force, calling into existence, in never-ending cycles all things and phenomena.” (Man’s Greatest Achievement, 1907)

A paper published by Parahamsa Tewari in the journal Physics Essays explains,

“A century from now, it will be well known that: the vacuum of space which fills the universe is itself the real substratum of the universe; vacuum in a circulating state becomes matter; the electron is the fundamental particle of matter and is a vortex of vacuum with a vacuum-less void at the center and it is dynamically stable; the speed of light relative to vacuum is the maximum speed that nature has provided and is an inherent property of the vacuum; vacuum is a subtle fluid unknown in material media; vacuum is mass-less, continuous, non viscous, and incompressible and is responsible for all the properties of matter; and that vacuum has always existed and will exist forever….Then scientists, engineers and philosophers will bend their heads in shame knowing that modern science ignored the vacuum in our chase to discover reality for more than a century.”

This non-physical “field” may also be dark energy, we don’t really know or understand it quite well, but we know it exists. A declassified Defense Intelligence Agency document touches on this,

“We do not understand why it exists or how it is created; we simply know it provides an ever-present force on spacetime, causing the universe to expand. Indeed, recent high-precision experimental observations indicate dark energy may be a cosmological vacuum energy.”

So, if our material world is birthed from this non material “stuff”, does consciousness play a factor? It’s interesting to contemplate, especially given the fact that consciousness is not a physical thing, nor is it the result of any known physical process or biology. You cannot pinpoint or find the source of consciousness within the brain. Even at the quantum level, factors associated with consciousness have been known to change the behavior of matter, like photons, suggesting that matter itself may be a conscious perceiving thing.

Does this mean that all “physical” things possess some type of consciousness? Photons don’t have a brain, do they? What about plants? There is a growing amount of evidence suggesting that plants act and behave in ways suggesting that they are a thinking things, capable of feelings, emotions, perceptions and thoughts.

If consciousness can have such an influence over matter, and is a non physical property that exists within all physical things, could it somehow be responsible for the creation of reality? This has been a common theme discussed within the realms of quantum physics for quite some time. In fact, the discussion of “ether”, this non physical, indescribable “stuff” has been the subject of contemplation for thousands of years. Plato wrote about the ether  in his work Phaedo, and explained how life exists within it. He believed what air is to us, the ether is to them. Is the ether alive? Is the universe itself, which could be primarily made up of this non-physical stuff, a conscious living entity?

You cannot explain consciousness in terms of the existing fundamentals like space, time, mass,  and charge. As a result, the logical thing to do is postulate whether consciousness itself is something fundamental to the existence of reality, to view consciousness itself as one of these fundamentals.

“Why do you insist the universe is not a conscious intelligence, when it gives birth to conscious intelligences?” Cicero, c. 44 BCE 

A New Paper

Another paper has emerged claiming that “observers” are responsible for determining physical reality, and that conscious observers themselves generate and create the structures of time and space.

What’s interesting to contemplate here is that, if this is true, it would include all “observers” within the universe itself, not just human observers. It reminds me of the double slit experiment, where tiny bits of matter are shot through a slit forming what’s called a wave pattern of probabilities and possibilities, but when an observer is introduced the wave function collapses.

One of the authors of the paper, Robert Lanza, told Big Think that observers can dramatically affect the “behavior of observable quantities” both at a microscopic and massive spatiotemporal scales. In fact, a “profound shift in our ordinary everyday worldview” is necessary. The world is not something that is formed outside of us, simply existing on its own. “Observers ultimately define the structure of physical reality itself.”

How does this work? Lanza contends that a network of observers is necessary and is “inherent to the structure of reality.” As he explains, observers — you, me, and anyone else — live in a quantum gravitational universe and come up with “a globally agreed-upon cognitive model” of reality by exchanging information about the properties of spacetime. “For, once you measure something,” Lanza writes, “the wave of probability to measure the same value of the already probed physical quantity becomes ‘localized’ or simply ‘collapses.'” That’s how reality comes to be consistently real to us all. Once you keep measuring a quantity over and over, knowing the result of the first measurement, you will see the outcome to be the same

The implications of this are and have always been quite large. The idea that consciousness itself is fundamental to reality suggests that it must have played an integral part in the creation of reality, that consciousness itself had to exist prior to the birth of physical material reality. One could go on and on contemplating things like: if consciousness is fundamental to the creation of physical matter, then what created consciousness itself? Where does consciousness itself originate from? Does existence itself even have a beginning? Can the future change the past, can the past change the future?

Who knows, but the most important point to takeaway here is that consciousness itself is fundamental to the creation of our physical experience. If we want to change the world, ultimately we have to change the way we think, feel and perceive. This is a key factor that is directly intertwined with the type human experience we create for ourselves.

This is why, perhaps, sometimes it seems that the greatest resource for powerful people, politicians and corporations is human consciousness itself.  If we ourselves determine what direction humanity heads simply by what we think and feel, just imagine what somebody could do if they could manipulate that aspect within us? The state of the world today, some might say, is chaotic, and that could be a direct result of the fact that the collective mind and heart is not in a state of coherence.

You might say “we are all over the place.” We’re separated by our beliefs and unable to come together in understanding and harmony. This collective state of being in turn will create a physical experience that reflects that, which is exactly what we are seeing today and have seen throughout human history.

Below is a great little documentary from a colleague of mine, it’s based off an essay he wrote for his philosophy master’s degree. It dives a bit deeper into this discussion.

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Consciousness

‘Ring Of Fire’ Solar Eclipse In Gemini: A Shift In Mindset

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Take a moment and breathe. Place your hand over your chest area, near your heart. Breathe slowly into the area for about a minute, focusing on a sense of ease entering your mind and body. Click here to learn why we suggest this.

We are having a New Moon Solar Eclipse in Gemini on June 10th which peaks at 10:42am Universal Time. It will be an annular eclipse which is when the Moon almost completely blocks out the Sun with the exception of its outer edges. It appears like this because the Moon is near its apogee, which is its furthest distance from the Earth. This type of eclipse is also referred to as a ‘Ring of Fire’ due to it appearing this way.

The full annular eclipse will only be visible from parts of Northern Ontario (Canada), parts of Northern Quebec (Canada), parts of Nunavut (Canada) as well as Northwestern Greenland and a portion of Eastern Russia. It will be seen as a partial eclipse throughout most of Canada (with the exception of Southwestern part), the Northern half of Alaska, most of Eastern USA, parts of North Central USA, Greenland, most of Russia, most of Europe, and parts of Asia closer to Russia. However, from some of these locations the Sun will be barely eclipsed and with a shorter window to see it.

A Solar Eclipse is a much more significant type of New Moon which influences a longer term period then a regular one. This is when it occurs near the Lunar Nodes, which is where the path of the Sun and Moon intersect from our perspective on Earth. This happens every six months, along with Full Moon Lunar Eclipses happening prior or following. In this specific case we had a Lunar Eclipse in Sagittarius two weeks before this one. You can read more about that one here.

Both Solar and Lunar Eclipses reflect changes and shifts which affect the following six months and could also influence up to six weeks prior. You may or may not see the effects of it around the time it occurs, but you may feel it and then see it play out in the weeks or months afterwards.

Eclipses are always part of a series that occur in the same opposing signs for 1.5 to 2 years which is where the Lunar Nodes are for most of that period. The positions of the Eclipses and the Lunar Nodes reflect an evolutionary process in how we work with the energies of these signs and pertaining to the areas of our lives being affected (based on our astrological blueprint at the specific time of each of our birth). What results from a series of eclipses in the same signs over these approximately 1.5  to 2 year periods may have longer-term effects beyond the window in which they occur.

North Node Solar Eclipse In Gemini

The shifts reflected by this eclipse are connected to Gemini themes and areas of life, ultimately leading to a revision in how its energies are expressed. It is near the Lunar North Node which in many cases could also indicate changes that have an increasing effect on Gemini expressions.

This process is something that began a year ago and will play out until the end of the year. However, this energy will be the most prominent now, from late Spring to Early Summer. This is because it will be the only Solar Eclipse in Gemini (in this eclipse series) along with its ruler Mercury being retrograde here as well.

Gemini belongs to the Air element which is socially and intellectually oriented. As a Mercurial sign, it is associated with the mind, communication, information, words, writing, facts, curiosity, and commuting. Gemini energy is adaptable, dualistic, agile, versatile, rational, and quick witted yet can also be restless, scattered, duplicitous, overly talkative, and superficial.

Gemini correlates with our local/immediate environment, neighborhood, neighbors, siblings/cousins, communication devices/computers, childhood education, vehicles, and friends/acquaintances from earlier years. Gemini energy is also associated with LGBTQ+ matters as well the different expressions and orientations under that umbrella.

Solar Eclipse Conjunct Mercury Retrograde, Applying Square To Neptune

As mentioned above, Gemini’s ruler Mercury is also retrograde in its own sign of Gemini. What is very interesting is that the halfway point of this (three and a half week) retrograde process will occur hours after this eclipse. This is when Mercury is aligned with the Sun (and the Moon in this case), known as its ‘inferior conjunction’, and is a very significant period of the entire retrograde.

The ‘inferior conjunction’ is a time in which Mercury passes through the heart of the Sun  (from a geocentric perspective) and is symbolically seen as a ‘purification’. In our real world experience, it can be a time of ridding ourselves of certain thoughts, ideas, perceptions, old interests, expectations, or other things that are not serving us while the potential for new ones may be seeded. We may experience important insights that can contribute to this process. Although this technically occurs on June 10th/11th, these themes can also play out in the days surrounding this period.

Considering that this significant astronomical event is occurring in the hours following the eclipse, this can suggest that the Mercury retrograde effect of re-calibrating our minds and perception can also be a major part of a longer term astrological backdrop over this following six months that is under the influence of this eclipse. This is a rare occurrence to have both of these happening at the same time, and its even more rare and interesting that it is all happening in a sign that Mercury rules.

The Sun and Moon in this Solar Eclipse are also moving towards a square with Neptune in Pisces. This can add to the scattering and lack of focus reflective of Gemini and the Sagittarian energy of the previous Lunar eclipse in the same nodal polarity. This can also bring confusion, uncertainty, and deception.

Facts, details, and rational thinking can be in conflict with illusions, fantasy, escapism, and ideals. Issues around lack of boundaries may also be a theme over the coming months. This energy can be good for creative efforts that are mentally or communication oriented, or spiritual practices that involve air such as breathwork and meditation. Some of this can play out around June 13th/14th when the Sun makes an exact square with Neptune.

Saturn In Aquarius Square Uranus In Taurus

This month Saturn in Aquarius is currently in its 2nd exact square with Uranus in Taurus which I have mentioned in previous articles. This started in February when the first square occurred and is present all of this year and somewhat next year. This month, especially from June 8th-20th, will be one of the stronger periods of this energy especially when it peaks around June 14th/15th.

This reflects tension and challenges between Saturn and Uranus themes or expressions. Saturn is traditional, conservative, serious, rational, and cautious. It rules commitments, maturity, responsibilities, limitations, restrictions, the status quo, the established order,  and structures. It is about patience, practicality, discipline, and boundaries.

Uranus is freedom seeking, detached, revolutionary, radical, rebellious, progressive, reforming, idealistic, unconventional, inventive, innovative, futuristic, and scientific. It represents new technology, discoveries, surprises, disruptions, and separations.

This configuration can play out as ‘old versus new’, ‘restrictions versus freedom’, ‘the status quo versus revolution’, ‘commitments/responsibilities versus liberation’, ‘elder versus youth’, ‘progressiveness versus tradition’ and so forth. This can also be a time of integrating Saturn and Uranus such as applying new, technological, scientific, or metaphysical approaches to help us with our work.

In some cases we can express a certain mix of combined Saturn-Uranus themes and be at odds with a different mix of these energies. Depending on the variables, this can potentially lead to contradictions or hypocrisy.

Venus ‘Out Of Bounds’, Square Chiron & Sextile Uranus

Venus, the planet of love, relationships, friends, social life, values, money, beauty, art, and aesthetics, went ‘out of bounds’ on May 23/24th which will last until June 17th/18th. This when a planet moves outside of the boundaries in the sky which the Sun travels from our perspective on Earth. This is about exploring new territory as well as going outside of our usual limitations and conventional ways of doing things in regards to how we approach Venus areas of life. This can also reflect seeing things objectively and from a different perspective.

At the time of this eclipse, Venus in Cancer is moving towards a square with Chiron in Aries which will be exact on June 12th/13th. This can bring up wounds, blockages, negative patterns, or can reflect themes around healing, holistic perception, or perhaps solutions when it comes to love, friendships, pleasures, values, or monetary issues. In some cases these themes may be tied into family matters, security, or emotional needs being at odds with our individuality and personal needs.

Venus is also in a sextile with Uranus in Taurus which can bring a new, stimulating, unusual, exciting, inspiring, liberating, unexpected, or unique energy around our relations with others.  This can also reflect surprises, positive changes, or freeing type of developments around financial matters.

In some cases it can be good for exploring new ways of making money that can be innovative, online, metaphysical, or technologically oriented. This will be strongest on June 13th/14th but it’s possible that our experiences of both this Venus-Uranus configuration and the Venus-Chiron one mentioned above may be intertwined.

Things To Consider

Is there something that you need to shift when it comes to your mindset? Do any of your perceptions, thoughts, ideas, or approaches to communication need to be revised? What has been coming up for you that can be contributing to this process? Is there anything that you need to change or adjust when it comes to your relationship with neighbors, close friends, siblings, or extended family? Are your sources of information reliable, factual, and rational? Do you need to look at things more objectively?

These are just some examples of themes that could come up during this period and over the coming months; however, there may be other variations of this energy playing out as well.  This isn’t a time to necessarily set intentions but instead to embrace the evolutionary process that eclipses facilitate. It will peak and reach its maximum eclipse at 10:42am Universal Time on June 10th while it will begin and finish approximately two and a half hours before and after. The exact moment of the New Moon will be 10:53am Universal Time. You can click here to see when the peak is in your time zone.

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